Within- and between-group changes in functional outcomes, anthropometric measurements, body composition, health-related quality of life and physical activity following pulmonary rehabilitation#

ControlInterventionBetween-group difference95% CIEffect sizep-value+
Functional outcomes
 ISWT m265±133305±148269±129342±14932±85−5–702.70.10
 mMRC grade3 (2–3)3 (2–3)3 (2–3)3 (2–3)0 (0–0)01
 Right handgrip kg26±1929±930±1032±100.5±5−2–31.50.44
 Left handgrip kg25±928±1029±930±100.9±7−2–40.50.33
 STS5 s10 (7–13)8 (6–10)11 (9–12)9 (7–12)−1 (−4–0.3)−5–0.240.08
Anthropometric measurements
 Weight kg68±1369±1375±1676±160.4±2−0.6–20.20.50
 Waist circumference cm94 (78–105)94 (77–102)93 (87–105)96 (85–111)1 (−3–1)1–30.10.38
 Hip circumference cm98±998±9104±11103±92±6−1–41.20.11
 Mid-thigh circumference cm56±858±659±661±50.4±6−2–30.050.75
Body composition
 Fat mass kg26 (18–30)25 (18–30)27 (21–32)27 (19–33)2 (−2–4)−3–40.030.24
 Fat-free mass kg41 (34–52)42 (34–56)52 (37–61)49 (38–59)0.3 (−3–4)−2–50.30.88
 FFMI kg·m−215±315±316±317±40.1±2−1–10.0010.38
 CAT score20±819±818±617±70.04±8−3–30.120.98
 Anxiety (HADS) score7±46±56±55±50.4±3−1–210.55
 Depression (HADS) score6±36±35±34±40.5±3−1–20.030.39
 SGRQ total score52±1751±1741±1343±162±15−5–100.0060.48
 SGRQ symptoms score63±2357±2052±2149±273±28−11–170.060.76
 SGRQ activity score72±1871±1960±1766±216±21−5–160.50.20
 SGRQ impact score38±1936.6±2027±1228±160.5±18−9–100.0010.74
 MUST score0 (0–1)0 (0–1)0 (0–0)0 (0–0)0 (0–0)01
Physical activity steps·day−12663 (1947–4912)2903 (1800–4753)4297 (1726–7211)5973 (2000–6812)31

Data are presented as mean±sd or median (interquartile range), unless otherwise stated. ISWT: incremental shuttle walk test; mMRC: modified Medical Research Council; STS5: five-repetition sit-to-stand test; FFMI: fat-free mass index; CAT: COPD Assessment Test; COPD: chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; HADS: Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale; SGRQ: St George's Respiratory Questionnaire; MUST: Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool. #: control n=22 and intervention n=22; : mean difference for each group was calculated by subtracting baseline from post-rehabilitation measurements; +: p-values were calculated using the paired t-test for normally distributed data and the Wilcoxon signed-rank test for nonnormally distributed data, and represent the change between the mean differences in the control and intervention groups.