Inclusion and exclusion criteria

Inclusion criteriaExclusion criteria
Adults aged 50 years or olderLacking mental capacity to provide informed consent
Physician diagnosis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (in line with GOLD criteria [21])Unable to communicate verbally and respond to questions in written English and no interpreters to enable this
Referred for outpatient pulmonary rehabilitation (in line with BTS guidance [7])#Receiving specialist geriatric services involving a geriatric doctor in previous or upcoming month
Rockwood Clinical Frailty Scale score of ≥5 [22]

GOLD: Global initiative for chronic Obstructive Lung Disease; BTS: British Thoracic Society. #: during the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic, this will be inclusive of standard pulmonary rehabilitation available, including supported home-based exercise programmes.