Demographic data and baseline characteristics of the chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients who completed the study

 Age years70±975±60.04*
  Male13 (59)15 (68)
  Female9 (41)7 (32)
 Active smoker10 (45)5 (23)0.20
 Ex-smoker12 (55)17 (77)
 Smoking history pack-years39 (24–59)45 (28–93)0.41
 Exacerbation within last year1 (0–2)0 (0–1)0.21
 Hospitalisation due to exacerbations within last year0 (0–1)0 (0–0)0.03*
 SABA15 (68)15 (68)0.81
 LABA15 (68)9 (41)0.09
 LAMA16 (73)8 (36)0.02*
 ICS12 (54)7 (32)0.16
 Nonrespiratory medications17 (77)20 (91)0.09
Pulmonary function
 FEV1 L1.2 (1–2)1.6 (1–2)0.27
 FEV1 % pred52±1959±220.18
 FEV1/FVC %54±1253±130.90
Anthropometric measurements
 Weight kg68±1375±160.12
 Waist circumference cm92±1496±150.46
 Hip circumference cm98±9104±110.04*
 Mid-thigh circumference cm56±859±60.16
Body composition
 Fat mass kg24±726±60.50
 BMI kg·m−223±424±40.36
 Fat-free mass kg43±1049±130.12
 FFMI kg·m−215±316±30.17
Functional outcomes
 ISWT m265±133269±1300.92
 mMRC grade3 (2–3)3 (2–3)0.87
 Right handgrip kg26±1930±100.15
 Left handgrip kg25±929±90.16
 STS5 s11 (7–13)10 (9–12)0.94
 CAT score20±818±60.37
 Anxiety (HADS) score6 (4–9)4 (3–10)0.42
 Depression (HADS) score6±35±30.19
 SGRQ total score52±1741±130.02*
 SGRQ symptoms score63±2352±210.14
 SGRQ activity score57 (57–86)57 (53–69)0.03*
 SGRQ impact score38±1927±120.03*
 MUST score0 (0–1)0 (0–0)0.50
Physical activity steps·day−12663 (1947–4912)4297 (1726–7211)0.33

Data are presented as n, mean±sd, n (%) or median (interquartile range), unless otherwise stated. SABA: short-acting β-agonist; LABA: long-acting β-agonist; SAMA: short-acting muscarinic antagonist; LAMA: long-acting muscarinic antagonist; ICS: inhaled corticosteroid; FEV1: forced expiratory volume in 1 s; FVC: forced vital capacity; BMI: body mass index; FFMI: fat-free mass index; ISWT: incremental shuttle walk test; mMRC: modified Medical Research Council; STS5: five-repetition sit-to-stand test; CAT: COPD Assessment Test; HADS: Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale; SGRQ: St George's Respiratory Questionnaire; MUST: Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool. #: p-values were calculated using the Chi-squared, paired t-test for normally distributed data and the Wilcoxon signed-rank test for nonnormally distributed data, and represent a comparison between the control and intervention groups. *: p<0.05.