Patient characteristics

AllGOLD 0COPD (GOLD 1–4)GOLD 0 versus COPD
Subjects36828 (1 n=6, 2 n=14, 3 n=6, 4 n=2)
Age years70.3±5.870.3±7.170.3±5.5ns
CAT score10.1±6.19.6±4.010.2±6.7ns
BMI kg·m−221.9±3.221.2±3.722.1±3.2ns
Fat mass %23.3±5.024.6±3.422.9±5.3ns
FFMI kg·m−216.7±2.315.9±2.716.9±2.2ns
SMI kg·m−29.1±1.08.8±1.29.2±0.9ns
Grip strength kg33.9±7.029.6±6.135.1±6.8p<0.05
PEmax %72.6±18.771.8±22.172.8±18.0ns
PImax %87.6±29.389.8±15.787.0±32.3ns
Vital capacity %95.3±16.298.9±12.094.2±17.2ns
FEV1 % pred69.4±24.494.6±10.762.1±22.3p<0.001
FEV1/FVC %55.4±17.478.5±7.848.8±13.2p<0.0001
Residual volume %117.1±35.499.4±17.2122.2±37.7ns
DLCO/VA %74.0±27.483.1±19.471.5±29.0ns
LAA %13.9±13.69.4±8.615.1±14.6ns
6MWD m435±95442±23433±107ns
 ΔSpO2 %7.3±4.64.4±2.48.1±4.7p<0.05
 ΔHR beats·min−138.2±15.231.5±7.240.1±16.4ns
 Leg fatigue0.7±1.30.8±1.20.7±1.3ns

Data are presented as n or mean±sd, unless otherwise stated. GOLD: Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease; mMRC: modified Medical Research Council dyspnoea scale; CAT: COPD Assessment Test; BMI: body mass index; FFMI: fat-free mass index; SMI: skeletal muscle mass index; PEmax: maximum expiratory pressure; PImax: maximum inspiratory pressure; FEV1: forced expiratory volume in 1 s; FVC: forced vital capacity; DLCO: diffusing capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide; VA: alveolar volume; LAA: low attenuation area; 6MWD: 6-min walk distance; SpO2: percutaneous oxygen saturation; ΔHR: difference in heart rate; ns: nonsignificant.