TABLE 1

General and oral conditions of participants with and without airflow limitation

Normal airflowAirflow limitationp-value
Subjects n384100
Age years74.8±2.975.8±3.00.002#
Female226 (58.9)40 (40.0)<0.001
Body mass index23.4±3.522.4±2.60.002#
Smoking intensity<0.001
 Nonsmokers249 (64.8)41 (41.0)
 Moderate smokers54 (14.1)16 (16.0)
 Heavy smokers81 (21.1)43 (43.0)
Current smokers16 (4.2)16 (16.0)<0.001
Never drinkers148 (38.5)31 (31.0)0.164
Physically active224 (58.3)60 (60.0)0.763
Dental conditions
 Teeth n21.0±7.321.6±7.10.460#
 Subjects with decayed teeth69 (18.0)26 (26.0)0.071
 Caries-experienced teeth %66.7±26.164.7±24.70.486#
 Max plaque index1.2±0.71.1±0.70.616#
 Periodontal conditions+0.159
  No/mild264 (71.0)61 (61.0)
  Moderate/severe108 (29.0)35 (35.0)
 Edentulous individuals12 (3.1)4 (4.0)0.753§
Tongue microbiota conditions
 Total bacterial density log copies8.3±0.58.4±0.40.015#
 Total bacterial densityƒ0.043
  Low201 (52.3)41 (41.0)
  High183 (47.7)59 (59.0)
 Total fungal density log copies4.0±0.63.9±0.60.727#

Data are presented as mean±sd or n (%), unless otherwise stated. #: Student's t-test; : Chi-squared test; +: only 468 dentulous individuals were included; §: Fisher's exact test; ƒ: stratified by median value.