TABLE 3

Outcomes of a comprehensive inpatient pulmonary rehabilitation (PR) in 50 post-acute coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients

Mild/moderate COVID-19Severe/critical COVID-19Between-group difference p-value
Pre-PRPost-PRChangePre-PRPost-PRChange
Subjects2426
Exercise performance
 6MWD m509 (426–539)557 (463–633)48*** (35–113)344 (244–392)468 (374–518)124*** (75–145)0.009
 6MWD % pred70.1 (57.8–80.2)81.0 (67.9–90.7)10.9*** (4.7–14.6)52.5 (42.4–58.3)70.5 (59.5–82.6)18.0*** (11.2–23.1)0.002
 6MWT SpO2 nadir %95.5 (94.0–97.0)95.5 (93.0–97.0)0.0 (−2.0–1.0)92.0 (87.8–94.2)93.0 (85.5–94.5)1.0 (−1.0–2.5)0.19
 End-6MWT dyspnoea Borg scale4 (3–5)4 (2–6)0 (−1–1)5 (4–6)5 (3–6)0 (−2–1)0.83
General
 Oxygen therapy at rest0 (0)0 (0)05 (19)3 (11)−2*** (−7)0.16
 Oxygen therapy during exertion0 (0)0 (0)08 (31)7 (27)−1*** (−4)0.33
Respiratory parameters
PaO2 mmHg (at rest and  ambient air)73.1 (63.6–77.4)75.8 (71.0–80.2)2.7* (−0.9–10.8)73.2 (62.7–77.6)75.7 (71.0–80.2)2.5* (−1.2–10.5)0.95
PaCO2 mmHg (at rest and  ambient air)35.0 (32.6–38.5)34.8 (31.1–36.5)−1.2 (−2.7–2.5)35.5 (31.8–36.9)35.3 (31.8–36.9)−0.2 (−2.9–2.7)1.00
DLCO % pred57.0 (50.0–65.5)61.5 (50.0–76.3)4.5 (−1.8–16.5)55.8 (37.2–63.0)59.5 (37.8–70.9)3.7*** (−0.5–12.7)0.92
KCO % pred67.6 (41.5–91.1)77.9 (55.6–95.1)10.3 (−3.0–11.8)85.0 (81.5–99.5)89.0 (80.0–102.5)4.0 (−4.5–9.5)0.38
 TLC % pred82.2 (65.3–88.9)81.1 (69.3–95.1)−1.1 (−4.7–10.7)80.9 (64.4–88.6)81.0 (68.8–93.3)0.1 (−4.3–10.5)0.91
 FVC % pred80.0 (59.2–90.9)87.7 (67.0–98.9)7.7** (1.0–17.8)75.1 (59.8–90.6)86.4 (67.6–96.3)11.3*** (1.0–16.9)0.97
 FEV1 % pred83.3 (65.5–101.1)95.1 (84.0–106.8)11.8*** (3.3–18.1)79.1 (65.8–99.7)94.8 (80.9–106.2)15.7*** (3.7–17.5)0.95
Quality of life
 SF-36 physical component sum score31.8 (26.2–35.7)31.7 (31.7–42.0)−0.1 (−4.0–9.9)30.2 (22.7–36.8)34.7 (30.2–41.3)4.5 (0.5–9.5)0.59
 SF-36 mental component sum score48.6 (37.2–53.8)54.2 (52.5–56.7)5.6 (1.4–9.2)38.5 (30.1–52.8)52.9 (32.0–58.2)14.4*** (−0.6–24.5)0.036
Laboratory parameters
 CRP mg·L−11.4 (0.6–3.9)1.0 (0.6–2.2)−0.4 (−1.2–0.1)2.6 (1.5–5.4)2.0 (1.3–3.9)−0.6 (−1.6–0.4)0.95
 Leukocytes g·L−15.9 (5.3–6.4)5.6 (4.9–6.3)−0.3 (−1.1–0.1)7.2 (6.0–9.7)7.0 (6.0–9.7)−0.2 (−0.8–1.1)0.19
 D-dimer µg·mL−1292 (196–498)291 (210–537)−1 (−25–30)726 (367–982)428 (307–807)−298*** (−639–14)0.001
 Pro-BNP pg·mL−172 (56–106)56 (33–91)−16* (−28–7)130 (59–335)147 (74–361)17 (−91–39)0.44

Data are presented as n, median (interquartile range) or n (%), unless otherwise stated. 6MWD: 6-min walk distance; 6MWT: 6-min walk test; SpO2: oxygen saturation; PaO2: partial oxygen pressure; PaCO2: partial carbon dioxide pressure; DLCO: diffusing capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide; KCO: transfer coefficient of the lung for carbon monoxide; TLC: total lung capacity; FVC: forced vital capacity; FEV1: forced expiratory volume in 1 s; SF-36: 36-question short-form health survey; CRP: C-reactive protein; BNP: brain natriuretic peptide. *: p<0.05 from pre- to post-PR; **: p<0.01 from pre- to post-PR; ***: p<0.001 from pre- to post-PR.