List of potential treatable traits (TTs) identified from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (ELSA) cohort

TTDiagnostic criteria
 Airflow limitationFEV1/FVC <0.7
 Chronic bronchitisPhysician diagnosis/self-report#
 Chronic sputum productionSputum with coughing (≥3 months·year−1)
 BreathlessnessmMRC dyspnoea scale
 Frequent chest infectionsSelf-report
 OsteoporosisPhysician diagnosis/self-report
 CVDPhysician diagnosis/self-report
 ArthritisPhysician diagnosis/self-report
 DiabetesPhysician diagnosis/self-report
 Cancer+Physician diagnosis/self-report
 Psychiatric problems§Physician diagnosis/self-report
 DepressionCES-D scale
 UnderweightBMI <18.5 kg·m−2
 ObesityBMI ≥30 kg·m−2
 SarcopeniaHandgrip strength <27 kg (males) and <16 kg (females)
 Systemic inflammationCRP >3 mg·L−1
 AnaemiaHb <140 g·L−1 (men) or <120 g·L−1 (women)
 DisabilitySelf-reported limitations in basic ADL and IADL
Behavioural traits/lifestyle-risk factors
 Current smokingInterview/self-report
 Physical inactivityƒInterview/self-report
 Poor family and social supportInterview/self-report

FEV1: forced expiratory volume in 1 s; FVC: forced vital capacity; mMRC: modified Medical Research Council; CVD: cardiovascular disease; CES-D: Centre for Epidemiological Studies-Depression; BMI: body mass index; CRP: C-reactive protein; Hb: haemoglobin; ADL: activities of daily living; IADL: instrumental activities of daily living. #: self-reported by the participants; : including high blood pressure (BP), angina, myocardial infarction, heart attack, high cholesterol, congestive heart failure, stroke and heart murmur or abnormal heart rhythm; +: including cancers of the lung and breast, as well as colorectal cancers, lymphoma, leukaemia and melanoma; §: including hallucinations, anxiety, emotional problems, schizophrenia, psychosis, mood swings and bipolar disorder; ƒ: no mild, moderate or vigorous activity per week.