TABLE 2

Use of β-blockers and risk of COPD exacerbations

β-blockersExacerbations nCrude hazard ratio (95% CI)p-valueAdjusted# hazard ratio (95% CI)p-value
Total COPD (n=1312)
 No use731ReferenceReference
Cardioselective β-blockers
 Current use1610.74 (0.62–0.88)0.0010.69 (0.58–0.83)0.00005
 Past use951.02 (0.83–1.27)0.8221.01 (0.81–1.26)0.915
Non-cardioselective β-blockers
 Current use251.09 (0.73–1.62)0.6741.19 (0.79–1.79)0.395
 Past use340.91 (0.64–1.28)0.5830.76 (0.53–1.08)0.123
No cardiovascular indication for β-blockers use (n=557)
 No use400ReferenceReference
Cardioselective β-blockers
 Current use181.38 (0.85–2.23)0.1930.94 (0.55–1.62)0.835
 Past use211.02 (0.66–1.58)0.9340.98 (0.62–1.53)0.918
Non-cardioselective β-blockers
 Current use2NANANANA
 Past use81.17 (0.58–2.37)0.6531.01 (0.49–2.06)0.979
Cardiovascular indication for β-blockers use (n=755)
 No use331ReferenceReference
Cardioselective β-blockers
 Current use1430.71 (0.58–0.86)0.0010.69 (0.57–0.85)0.0004
 Past use741.03 (0.80–1.33)0.7881.08 (0.83–1.40)0.560
Non-cardioselective β-blockers
 Current use231.15 (0.75–1.75)0.5281.38 (0.89–2.12)0.147
 Past use260.87 (0.58–1.30)0.4980.71 (0.47–1.07)0.106

#: Adjusted for age, sex, smoking, incident cardiovascular disease (i.e., heart failure, hypertension, atrial fibrillation and/or coronary heart disease) during follow-up, use of respiratory drugs (R03), and nitrates (C01DA). NA: not applicable.