Characteristics of studies included in this systematic review and meta-analysis

First author, year [ref.]Assessment methodMeasurements and scaleCOPDControls
Subjects nAge yearsMale %FEV1 %CVD#Subjects nAge yearsMale %Smoking status
Barak, 2017 [30]FMDFMD% (% proportional change from baseline)1769.0±8.164.731.8±11.05.91065.3±7.370.0Former smokers n=4;
nonsmokers n=6
Barr, 2007 [42]FMDFMD% (% proportional change from baseline)44n/a54.5n/an/a6370.0±5.054.0Former smokers
Blum, 2014 [28]FMDFMD% (% proportional change from baseline)2364.4±8.456.045.0±14.026.02244.7±11.746.0Nonsmokers
Costanzo, 2017 [29]FMDFMD% (% proportional change from baseline)4174.0±5.856.161.9±16.6n/a (0% CAD, but data about PAD and stroke missing)3573.8±6.645.7n/a
Eickhoff, 2008 [31]FMD and NMDFMD% and NMD% (% proportional change from baseline)6062.0±8.056.641.0±18.004060.9±10.437.5Nonsmokers n=20;
smokers n=20
Gelinas, 2017 [32]FMD and NMDFMD% and NMD% (% proportional change from baseline)2469.9±2.854.268.0±19.002062.6±1.150.0n/a (excluded if >10 pack-years)
Hartmann, 2016 [33]FMD and NMDFMD% and NMD% (% proportional change from baseline)1067.0±±5.001066.0±2.040.0Nonsmokers
Ives, 2014 [34]FMDFMD% (% proportional change from baseline)3066.0±±4.06.663066.0±2.050.0Nonsmokers
Keymel, 2018 [25]FMD and NMD, VOPFMD%, NMD% (% proportional change from baseline) and FBF after reactive hyperaemia (mL·min−1 per 100 mL tissue)1766.0±8.010059.0±17.0100.01664±10.0100Former smokers n=16
Kuzubova, 2013 [43]FMDFMD% (% proportional change from baseline)6360.4±1.010045.1±2.4n/a9557.3±1.710057% former or current smokers
Maclay, 2009 [23]VOPFBF after bradykinin infusion (mL·min−1 per 100 mL tissue)1865.0±5.410047.6±20.101763.0±6.0100Nonsmokers
Majewski, 2020 [27]FMSFReactive hyperaemia (% proportional change from baseline)2666.9±8.342.363.7±13.17.692052.5±13.260.0Smokers n=2;
former smokers n=3;
nonsmokers n=15
Malerba, 2018 [26]PATRHI1674.2±8.662.569.5±19.001675.1±3.262.5Smokers n=3;
former smokers n=7;
nonsmokers n=6
Marchetti, 2011 [35]FMD and NMDFMD% and NMD% (% proportional change from baseline)861.0±±22.00953.0±6.066.6Nonsmokers
Moro, 2008 [36]FMD and NMDFMD% and NMD% (% proportional change from baseline)4476.761.4n/a15.94873.427.1Smokers n=7;
former smokers n=15;
nonsmokers n=26
Ozben, 2010 [37]FMD and NMDFMD% and NMD% (% proportional change from baseline)3064.2±10.973.351.0±15.033.32061.9±7.475.0Nonsmokers
Piccari, 2020 [38]FMDFMD% (% proportional change from baseline)6162.5±4.783.643.6±19.7n/a4755.2±8.144.7Nonsmokers n=26;
smokers n=20
Pizarro, 2014 [39]FMD and NMDFMD% and NMD% (% proportional change from baseline)6262.0±8.093.553.0±18.003558.5±7.119.0Nonsmokers n=18;
smokers n=17
Rodriguez-Miguelez, 2015 [40]FMDFMD% (% proportional change from baseline)1756.0±7.035.358.0±15.001558.0±7.033.3Nonsmokers n=13;
smokers n=2
Yang, 2017 [24]VOPFBF after bradykinin infusion (% proportional change from baseline)1263.0±6.010053.0±13.0n/a1264.0±7.0100Nonsmokers
Zelt, 2018 [41]FMDFMD% (% proportional change from baseline)1666.0±8.031.386.2±13.812.51664.0±8.043.8Smoker n=1;
former smokers n=4; nonsmokers n=11

Data are presented as mean±sd, unless otherwise stated. FEV1: forced expiratory volume in 1 s; CVD: cardiovascular disease; FMD: flow-mediated dilatation; n/a: not available; CAD: coronary artery disease; PAD: peripheral artery disease; NMD: nitroglycerin-mediated dilatation; VOP: venous occlusion plethysmography; FBF: forearm blood flow; FMSF: flow-mediated skin fluorescence; PAT: peripheral arterial tonometry; RHI: reactive hyperaemia index. #: includes CAD, PAD and stroke; : n=1 participant excluded from analysis due to missing data.