Patients characteristics at baseline

CharacteristicsTotal COPD patientsCardiovascular indication for β-blockersNo cardiovascular indication for β-blockersp-value
Patients n1312755557
Age years69.7±9.270.4±8.868.8±9.70.002
Male sex750 (57.2)438 (58.0)312 (56.0)0.470
Ever smokers1104 (84.1)632 (83.7)472 (84.7)0.450
BMI kg·m−226.0 (23.7–28.9)26.5 (24.1–29.4)25.5 (23.0–28.0)<0.001
Heart failure94 (7.2)94 (12.5)NANA
Coronary heart disease156 (11.9)156 (20.7)NANA
Atrial fibrillation31 (2.4)31 (4.1)NANA
Hypertension#685 (52.2)685 (90.7)NANA
Diabetes105 (8.0)81 (10.7)24 (4.3)<0.001

Data are presented as mean±sd, n (%) or median (interquartile range), unless otherwise stated. Cardiovascular indication for β-blockers use was defined as a history of hypertension, coronary heart disease, atrial fibrillation and/or heart failure at baseline. BMI: body mass index; NA: not applicable. #: data were missing on hypertension in 218 subjects; : diabetes mellitus was defined as a fasting serum glucose concentration of ≥7.0 mmol·L−1 or a non-fasting serum glucose concentration of ≥11.1 mmol·L−1 or the use of blood glucose-lowering medications [40].