TABLE 2

Characteristics of patients with and without evidence of infection

InfectionNo infectionp-value
Patients102 (69.9)44 (30.1)
Age years72.3±10.369.8±10.70.26
Male65 (63.7)26 (59.1)0.6
Frequent exacerbator, hospital30 (29.4)12 (27.3)0.79
Current smoker32 (31.4)15 (34.1)0.75
Smoking history pack-years46.7±28.538.7±21.60.1
BMI kg·m−225.1±5.825.1±5.30.97
FEV1 L1.21±0.491.10±0.670.42
FEV1 % pred51.2±18.044.0±20.10.12
TLCO % pred37.3±14.842.7±19.70.1
mMRCD score4 (3–5)4 (3–5)0.81
Days since symptom onset5 (3–7)4 (2–14)0.94
Prior contact with HCP68 (66.7)24 (54.5)0.17
Pre-hospital antibiotics51 (50)16 (36.4)0.13
Pre-hospital OCS30 (29.4)6 (13.6)0.042
CAT total score30 (25–34)30 (26–33)0.98
HADS total score16 (10–22)18.5 (9–24)0.53
BAP-65 class3 (2–5)2 (2–3)0.13
CXR infiltrate30.420.90.24
Fever ≥38°C23.50<0.001
WCC ×109 per L12.2±4.810.0±3.00.006
Neutrophils ×109 per L9.5±4.37.0±2.4<0.001
Eosinophils ×109 per L0.04 (0.0–0.14)0.25 (0.08–0.46)<0.001
CRP mg·dL−153 (18.7–117)4 (1.7–7.0)<0.001
pH7.36±0.087.33±0.080.04
PvCO2 mmHg48.1±11.254.5±13.80.006
Bicarbonate mmol·L−127.5±4.229.3±5.70.13
Base excess mmol·L−12.7±3.84.1±5.20.11
NT-proBNP ng·L−1395 (164–1221)263 (152–853)0.45
hs-TnI ng·L−19 (5–32)8 (5–20)0.38

Data are presented as n (%), mean±sd or median (interquartile range), unless otherwise stated. BMI: body mass index; FEV1: forced expiratory volume in 1 s; TLCO: transfer factor of the lung for carbon monoxide; mMRCD: modified Medical Research Council dyspnoea scale; HCP: healthcare provider; OCS: oral corticosteroid; CAT: COPD Assessment Test; HADS: Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale; BAP-65: blood urea nitrogen ≥25 mg·dL−1, altered mental status, pulse 109 beats per min, age 65 years; CXR: chest radiography; WCC: white cell count; CRP: C-reactive protein; PvCO2: venous carbon dioxide tension; NT-proBNP: N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide; hs-TnI: high-sensitivity troponin I.