Baseline characteristics of 146 patients enrolled during acute exacerbations of COPD (AECOPD)

Age years71.8±10.4Bronchiectasis16 (10.3)LAMA133 (85.8)
Male97 (62.6)OSA14 (9.0)LABA129 (83.2)
BMI kg·m−224.8±6.5Hypertension71 (45.8)ICS126 (81.3)
FEV1 L1.1±0.5AF/flutter19 (12.3)OCSƒ13 (8.4)
FEV1 % pred45.2±18.6IHD43 (27.7)Antibioticƒ5 (3.2)
TLCO % pred38.3±16.2Cardiac failure32 (20.6)Antiplatelet55 (35.5)
LTOT19 (12)CVD15 (9.7)Anticoagulant18 (11.6)
mMRCD score median (interquartile range)4 (3–5)Diabetes29 (18.7)β-blocker19 (12.3)
Current smoker48 (31)Malignancy15 (9.7)Ivabradine4 (2.6)
Former smoker117 (69)Renal failure+3 (1.9)Ca2+RA13 (8.2)
Smoking history pack-years44±26Anxiety36 (23.2)ACE-I/ARB52 (33.5)
AECOPDs in previous yearDepression35 (22.6)Statin57 (36.8)
 Hospital1.5±2.3Alcohol misuse12 (7.7)Loop diuretic33 (21.3)
 Community1.7±2.5Substance misuse2 (1.3)Benzodiazepine##20 (12.6)
Frequent exacerbator#46 (29.7)Other psychiatric disorder§3 (1.9)Antidepressant/antipsychotic39 (24.5)

Data are presented as mean±sd or n (%), unless otherwise stated. BMI: body mass index; FEV1: forced expiratory volume in 1 s; TLCO: transfer factor of the lung for carbon monoxide; LTOT: long-term oxygen therapy; mMRCD: modified Medical Research Council dyspnoea scale; OSA: obstructive sleep apnoea; AF: atrial fibrillation; IHD: ischaemic heart disease; CVD: cerebrovascular disease; LAMA: long-acting muscarinic antagonist; LABA: long-acting β2-agonist; ICS: inhaled corticosteroid; OCS: oral corticosteroid; Ca2+RA: calcium receptor antagonist; ACE-I: angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor; ARB: angiotensin receptor blocker. #: two or more AECOPD hospitalisations in the previous year; : receiving treatment or palliation; +: estimated glomerular filtration rate <30 mL·min−1; §: bipolar affective disorder, schizophrenia or post-traumatic stress disorder; ƒ: maintenance; ##: excluding nocte temazepam.