TABLE 1

Clinical characteristics of 515 patients admitted to the hospital with suspected or confirmed COVID-19 who required a bronchoscopy

VariableClinical suspicion cohort (n=30)RT-PCR-confirmed cohort (n=485)p-value
Age, mean±sd59.2±15.561.7±10.90.390
Women36.7% (11)26.4% (128)0.219
Previous medical history
 Diabetes20% (6)22.5% (109)0.752
 Hypertension36.7% (11)47.6% (231)0.243
 Cardiovascular13.3% (4)10.9% (53)0.684
 Bronchopulmonary23.3% (7)14% (68)0.161
 Neoplasms30% (9)9.3% (45)0.002
Charlson comorbidity index<0.001
 0–153.3% (16)77.3% (375)
 213.3% (4)12.6% (61)
 ≥333.3% (10)10.1% (49)
Tobacco consumption0.046
 Current smokers17.9% (5)6.2% (29)
 Past smokers17.9% (5)28% (130)
 Nonsmokers64.2% (18)65.8% (306)
 Lifetime tobacco consumption#,  pack-years21.5 (11.5–46.2)30 (15–40)0.988
Immunosuppression
 HIV3.3% (1)0.8% (4)0.174
 Chemotherapy16.7% (5)1% (5)<0.001
 Monoclonal antibodies3.3% (1)1% (5)0.304
 Calcineurin inhibitors10% (3)2.1% (10)0.034
 Antimetabolites6.7% (2)2.1% (10)0.151
 Corticosteroids0% (0)2.9% (14)1
Clinical presentation of COVID-19
 Fever76.7% (23)83.1% (403)0.366
 Dyspnoea56.7% (17)67.4% (327)0.225
 Cough50% (15)74.2% (360)0.004
 Gastrointestinal symptoms16.7% (5)23.1% (112)0.415
 Myalgias13.3% (4)32.2% (156)0.031
 Anosmia/ageusia0 (0%)6.6% (32)0.245
Laboratory parameters
PaO2/FIO2 ratio270 (196–288)160 (118–216)0.038
SaO2/FIO2 ratio+329 (235–387)184 (132–239)<0.001
 Lymphocyte count·µL−1890 (490–1540)700 (540–1000)0.115
 D dimer ng·mL−11113 (577–2170)843 (492–1605)0.545
 Lactate dehydrogenase U·L−1304 (239–507)450 (340–625)0.049
 Ferritin ng·mL−1589 (359–1356)1275 (648–2299)0.107
 C-reactive protein mg·L−136 (12–166)22 (11–81)0.438
 Interleukin-6 pg·mL−146 (5–149)65 (23–130)0.546
Chest radiograph abnormalities<0.001
 Normal0% (0)0.4% (2)
 Unilateral interstitial23.3% (7)1.6% (8)
 Bilateral interstitial43.3% (13)36.7% (178)
 Unilateral consolidation6.7% (2)2.9% (14)
 Bilateral consolidation16.7% (5)46.8% (227)
 Others10% (3)11.5% (56)
COVID-19-specific therapy
 Azithromycin0% (0)50.4% (242)<0.001
 Hydroxychloroquine3.3% (1)75.4% (362)<0.001
 Lopinavir/ritonavir3.3% (1)54% (259)<0.001
 Remdesivir0% (0)5% (24)0.386
 Interferon-β3.3% (1)15.2% (73)0.104
 Anakinra0% (0)3.8% (18)0.616
 Tocilizumab3.3% (1)49.2% (236)<0.001
 Antibiotics3.3% (1)31.7% (152)<0.001
 Corticosteroids3.3% (1)70.4% (338)<0.001
Length of hospital stay, days18 (8–28)38 (22–61)0.007
Admission to intensive care unit26.7% (8)95.2% (456)<0.001
In-hospital mortality20% (6)33.6% (163)0.123

Data are presented as % (n) or median (interquartile range), unless otherwise stated. PaO2: arterial oxygen tension; FIO2: inspiratory oxygen fraction; SaO2: arterial oxygen saturation. #: only accounted for current/past smokers; : PaO2/FIO2 was available in 298 patients; +: SaO2/FIO2 was available in 140 patients who did not have PaO2/FIO2.