TABLE 3

Clinical, radiological and endoscopic predictors of in-hospital mortality at 90 days among patients with RT-PCR-confirmed COVID-19 admitted to the hospital who required a first bronchoscopy (n=496)

VariablesUnivariate analysisMultivariate analysis (initial model)Multivariate analysis (final model)
OR (95% CI)p-valueOR (95% CI)p-valueOR (95% CI)p-value
Age1.05 (1.03–1.08)<0.0011.05 (1.03–1.08)<0.0011.06 (1.03–1.08)<0.001
Sex, women1.14 (0.74–1.74)0.551
Medical history
 Diabetes0.96 (0.62–1.50)0.872
 Hypertension1.22 (0.84–1.77)0.2920.93 (0.59–1.47)0.768
 Cardiovascular0.73 (0.39–1.37)0.333
 Bronchopulmonary1.08 (0.64–1.83)0.767
 Neoplasms0.77 (0.40–1.47)0.427
Charlson comorbidity index ≥31.15 (0.63–2.09)0.6441.25 (0.62–2.53)0.5261.07 (0.56–2.04)0.834
Current/past smoking1.18 (0.79–1.76)0.403
Interval hospital admission to FBC0.99 (0.98–1.00)0.0530.99 (0.98–1.00)0.1630.99 (0.98–1.00)0.076
Clinical presentation
 Fever0.84 (0.51–1.37)0.491
 Dyspnoea1.26 (0.84–1.88)0.2631.44 (0.88–2.33)0.144
 Cough0.82 (0.54–1.25)0.361
 Gastrointestinal1.05 (0.67–1.62)0.832
 Myalgias1.08 (0.72–1.60)0.713
Laboratory parameters
 Lymphocyte count1.00 (0.99–1.00)0.2721.00 (1.00–1.00)0.901
 D dimer1.00 (1.00–1.00)0.0681.00 (1.00–1.00)0.123
 Lactate dehydrogenase1.00 (1.00–1.00)0.543
 Ferritin1.00 (1.00–1.00)0.318
 C-reactive protein1.00 (0.99–1.00)0.1511.00 (0.99–1.00)0.206
 Interleukin-61.00 (1.00–1.00)0.498
Radiograph, bilateral involvement1.11 (0.67–1.84)0.681
Indications for bronchoscopy
 Atelectasis1.02 (0.53–1.96)0.951
 Mucus plugs1.42 (0.94–2.14)0.0921.63 (0.97–2.73)0.0631.60 (1.02–2.53)0.041
 Haemoptysis1.26 (0.60–2.67)0.540
 Radiological1.41 (0.91–2.21)0.123
Persistence/progression
 Difficult mechanical ventilation#1.21 (0.83–1.75)0.319
Bronchoscopy findings
 Mucosal hyperaemia0.81 (0.44–1.50)0.5060.45 (0.22–0.94)0.0350.49 (0.25–0.97)0.041
 Thick mucus1.19 (0.82–1.73)0.3651.67 (0.99–2.80)0.051
 Fluid mucus0.96 (0.61–1.52)0.9641.42 (0.75–2.67)0.281
 Mucus plugs1.41 (0.89–2.26)0.1421.13 (0.63–2.06)0.673
 Haematic secretions1.78 (1.09–2.89)0.0201.98 (0.63–2.06)0.0281.79 (1.05–3.05)0.032
 Clots1.59 (0.70–3.57)0.2661.87 (0.30–2.51)0.793

Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used. FBC: fibreoptic bronchoscopy. #: includes impossible weaning from mechanical ventilation.