TABLE 1

Clinical characteristics and lung function by COVID-19 severity at 6 months from discharge

Whole cohortOxygen supplementationCPAPMVp-value
Subjects n (%)13586 (64)29 (21)20 (15)
Age, years59±1157±12#61±1164±7#0.01
Males % total6761#7085#0.04
BMI, kg·m−228±527±429±729±3ns
Current smokers n (%)4 (3)2 (1.5)2 (1.5)0ns
Former smokers n (%)25 (18)19 (14)5 (3)1 (1)ns
COPD n (%)4 (3)01 (1.5)1 (1.5)ns
Asthma n (%)3 (2)003 (2)ns
mMRC score0.93±0.840.90±0.891.07±0.750.85±0.75ns
mMRC score >127 (20)16 (12)7 (5)4 (3)ns
TLC, L5.72±1.285.73±1.235.62±1.655.79±1.28ns
TLC, % predicted96±3396±1790±1889±13ns
TLC <LLN25 (19)12 (9)8 (6)5 (4)ns
RV, L2.09±0.802.13±0.822.01±0.772.05±0.76ns
RV, % predicted96±33100±3389±3287±30ns
RV >ULN10 (7)8 (6)3 (2)2 (2)ns
RV/TLC0.36±0.100.37±0.110.35±0.080.35±0.09ns
RV/TLC, % predicted96±2499±2792±2091±22ns
FVC, L3.61±0.653.56±0.923.72±1.093.71±0.72ns
FVC, % predicted91±1690±1794±1692±12ns
FEV1, L2.92±0.962.91±0.742.94±0.862.91±0.69ns
FEV1, % predicted94±1694±1694±1692±14ns
FEV1/VC0.81±0.070.82±0.070.79±0.070.79±0.08ns
FEV1/VC, % predicted101±9102±9100±9100±10ns
FEV1/VC <LLN11 (8)7 (5)3 (2)2 (1)ns
DLCO, mmol·kPa−1·min−17.20±2.067.29±2.167.02±1.877.06±1.96ns
DLCO, % predicted82±2083±2180±1679±20ns
DLCO <LLN46 (34)27 (20)11 (8)9 (7)ns
KCO, mmol·kPa−1·min−1·L−11.37±0.261.38±0.271.36±0.271.35±0.22ns
KCO, % predicted95±1894±1896±1998±19ns
KCO <LLN17 (13)11 (8)4 (3)3 (2)ns

Data are presented as mean±sd, unless otherwise stated. All percentages are calculated as % of total number of enrolled subjects (n=135). CPAP: continuous positive airway pressure; MV: mechanical ventilation; BMI: body mass index; mMRC: modified Medical Research Council dyspnoea scale (at 6 months); TLC: total lung capacity; LLN: lower limit of normality; RV: residual volume; ULN: upper limit of normality; FVC: forced vital capacity; FEV1: forced expiratory volume in 1 s; VC: vital capacity; DLCO: diffusing capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide; KCO: transfer coefficient of the lung for carbon monoxide (DLCO corrected for alveolar volume); ns: nonsignificant. #: within each row, identical superscripts indicate significant difference.