TABLE 2

Respiratory function impairment at 6 months from discharge for COVID-19

TLC <LLNDLCO <LLNFEV1/FVC <LLNRV >ULNp-value
Subjects n25181110
% of discharged subjects191387
Age, years62±1059±1268±564±6ns
Males/females n/n20/510/88/35/4ns
BMI, kg·m−228±527±428±528±4ns
Current smokers n1010
Former smokers n2132
COPD n0040
Asthma n0010
CPAP n/total8/292/293/291/29ns
MV n/total6/200/202/201/20ns
mMRC dyspnoea, score1.84±0.801.22±0.551.27±0.901.3±0.67ns
TLC, L4.54±1.055.36±1.046.07±1.226.89±1.60
TLC, %69±990±10106±13114±12
RV, L1.45±0.481.99±0.673.28±0.863.44±0.62
RV, % predicted63±2192±22138±24155±18
RV/TLC0.33±0.10#,¶0.37±0.09§,+0.52±0.09#,§0.51±0.99¶,+0.01
RV/TLC, % predicted82±28#96±21§,+125±21#,§130±20¶,+0.01
FVC, L3.11±0.853.36±0.712.92±0.813.40±1.25ns
FVC, % predicted76±14§89±14§85±1990±190.04
FEV1, L2.69±0.672.73±0.561.93±0.532.83±0.97ns
FEV1, % predicted85±1392±1272±1797±19ns
FEV1/VC0.85±0.040.81±0.050.67±0.060.84±0.06
FEV1/VC, % predicted109±6102±683±5107±7
DLCO, mmol·kPa−1·min−16.16±1.975.36±1.095.67±2.026.95±2.19ns
DLCO, % predicted68±1963±1073±2882±17ns
KCO, mmol·kPa−1·min−1·L−11.34±0.261.19±0.271.19±0.341.38±0.11§ns
KCO, % predicted97±21§80±13§85±2898±100.04

Data are presented as mean±sd, unless otherwise stated. TLC: total lung capacity; LLN: lower limit of normality; DLCO: diffusing capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide; FEV1: forced expiratory volume in 1 s; FVC: forced vital capacity; RV: residual volume; ULN: upper limit of normality; BMI: body mass index; CPAP: continuous positive airway pressure; MV: mechanical ventilation; mMRC: modified Medical Research Council dyspnoea scale (at 6 months); VC: vital capacity; KCO: transfer coefficient of the lung for carbon monoxide (DLCO corrected for alveolar volume); ns: nonsignificant. #,¶,+,§: within each row, identical superscripts indicate significant difference.