Patient-reported receipt of brief stop-smoking advice (primary outcome) and of recommendations/prescriptions of evidence-based treatment to quit smoking (secondary outcomes) delivered by their general practitioner (GP), stratified by pre-/post-data collection period and by training method of the GP they had consulted; and associations of these outcomes with training (pre versus post) and with the interaction of training by training method (ABC/5As by pre/post) (n=1937 smoking patients)

Outcome (patient-reported)Pre-trainingPost-trainingaORimputed post versus pre (95% CI)#aORimputed ABC versus 5As# by post versus pre (95% CI)
Subjects n5275121039459439898
Brief stop-smoking advice (primary outcome)11.8 (62)14.5 (74)13.1 (136)35.7 (164)30.3 (133)33.1 (297)3.25 (2.34–4.51)***1.71 (0.94–3.12)
Behavioural counselling (individual, group)1.5 (8)1.6 (8)1.5 (16)13.3 (61)3.9 (17)8.7 (78)7.15 (4.02–12.74)***4.59 (1.40–14.98)*
Nicotine replacement therapy0.6 (3)0.4 (2)0.5 (5)3.3 (15)7.1 (31)5.12 (46)15.45 (5.67–42.10)***0.21 (0.03–1.55)
Varenicline or bupropion0 (0)1.4 (7)0.7 (7)3.1 (14)1.6 (7)2.3 (21)3.10 (1.27–7.53)***
Any pharmacotherapy0.6 (3)1.8 (9)1.2 (12)6.3 (29)8.7 (38)7.5 (67)7.99 (4.11–15.52)***1.81 (0.42–7.78)
Combination of behavioural counselling and pharmacotherapy1.9 (10)1.8 (9)1.8 (19)7.6 (35)5.2 (23)6.5 (58)4.36 (2.46–7.73)***1.42 (0.45–4.44)

Data are presented as percentage (n), unless stated otherwise. Data are presented as adjusted odds ratios (aOR) and 95% confidence interval (95% CI) around aOR. #: logistic regression models with a fixed effect for time (pre- versus post-training) and random effects for the practices and the time effect, for the ABC versus 5As comparison: the group variable (5As or ABC training) and its interaction with time were added to the models as fixed effects; both models were adjusted for patients’ sex, age, level of education, time spent with urges to smoke and strength of urges to smoke (SUTS [32]). : model could not be fitted due to perfect separation (prior to the training, no (0%) such recommendation was ever provided in the ABC group, increasing to 3.1% after the training, while the pre- and post-training percentages remained relatively stable at 1.4% and 1.6%, respectively, in the 5As group). *: p<0.05; ***: p<0.001.