TABLE 1

Comparison between patients with high and low upper airway symptoms

High upper airway symptomsLow upper airway symptomsp-value
Subjects n74106
Age years66±967±80.745
Female sex n (%)31 (42)68 (64)<0.01
BMI kg·m−226.0±6.226.4±5.80.146
Smoking status0.318
 Former smoker48 (65)76 (72)
 Current smoker26 (35)30 (28)
Tobacco exposure pack-years50 (40–59)43 (34–53)0.141
Country0.867
 Denmark51 (69)75 (71)
 Sweden23 (31)31 (29)
SNOT22 (total score)29 (23–37)14 (9–22)<0.001
SNOT22nasal10 (8–13)2 (0–4)
Sleep and productivity sub-score (q13–19)12 (7–18)8 (3–13)<0.001
CAT score17.4±7.514.9±6.5<0.05
Inhaled medication​​​​​​​
 ICS use31 (42)47 (44)0.701
 Dual bronchodilator23 (31)26 (25)0.408
 Triple therapy27 (37)39 (37)0.843
FEV1 L1.48±0.591.31±0.53<0.05
FEV1 % pred53±1652±170.629
FVC L2.96±0.972.67±0.88<0.05
FVC % pred82 ±1784±190.403
RV L4.39±1.434.50±1.440.666
RV % pred190±64202±630.284
TLC L7.20±1.666.90±1.530.235
TLC % pred116±23121±220.281
DLCO mmol·min−1·kPa−14.40±1.933.89±1.590.103
DLCO % pred52±2148±170.249
ΔFEV1 mL110±132108±1260.905
ΔFEV1 %10±1210±120.947
Bronchodilator response >12%+200 mL13 (17)20 (19)0.824
GOLD stage
 A
B
C
D
11 (15)
45 (61)
0 (0)
18 (24)
22 (21)
53 (50)
4 (4)
27 (26)
0.206
Yearly exacerbations21 (28)40 (38)0.197
≥2 moderate/severe AECOPD/year, n (%)18 (24)20 (19e)0.377
Atopy14 (19)18 (17)0.864
CT sinus score (n=57)1.5 (0–2.25)1 (0–2.5)0.574
CT sinus score ≥115 (71)20 (56)0.235

Data presented as the median and interquartile range (IQR), mean±sd, or count and percentage. BMI: body mass index; SNOT22: Sino Nasal Outcome Test 22; SNOT22nasal: nasal domain/upper airway domain of SNOT22; CAT: COPD Assessment Test; ICS: inhaled corticosteroids; FEV1: forced expiratory volume in 1s; FVC: forced vital capacity; RV: residual volume; TLC: total lung capacity; DLCO: diffusing capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide; ΔFEV1: increase in FEV1 from baseline; GOLD: Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease; AECOPD: acute exacerbations in COPD; CT: computed tomography.