TABLE 1

Bronchoscopic studies

First author/yearStudy purpose and designPopulationDiagnostic modalityDiagnostic criteriaFindingsDiscussion
Majid et al. 2014 [19]Prospective single-centre study
Assessing inter- and intra-observer agreement in LAC
10 patients (males (n=4), females (n=6); mean age: 65 years, age range: 43–74 years) with various conditionsDynamic flexible bronchoscopyTBM or EDAC ≥50% reduction in the anteroposterior diameterTBM was found in 70% of patientsThere is intra- and interobserver agreement among pulmonologists and trainees with various levels of experience in the evaluation of LAC
Dal Negro et al. 2013 [7]Prospective single-centre study
Assessing the prevalence of both TBM and EDAC
202 asthmatics (males (n=91), females (n=111); age: 47.5±13.3 years), and 62 subjects without any obstructive disease (males (n=38), females (n=24); age: 38.9±10.4 years)Dynamic flexible bronchoscopyTBM or EDAC >50% of airway collapseTBM and particularly EDAC prevalence are related to asthma severityThe presence of TBM or EDAC should be considered when bronchial asthma persists despite appropriate pharmacological treatment
Murgu & Colt, 2007 [18]Retrospective single-centre study
Assessing a multidimensional classification system (FEMOS) for evaluating patients with expiratory LAC
18 patients (males (n=13), females (n=5); 4 with EDAC and 14 with TBM)Rigid bronchoscopyLAC, normal <50%, mild, 50–75%; moderate, 75–100%; and severe, 100% and the airway walls make contactEDAC and TBM were found in 22.2% and 77.8%, respectivelyUsing FEMOS, the morphologies and aetiologies of LAC can be identified and stratified objectively based on the degree of functional impairment, extent of disease and severity of airway collapse

LAC: large airway collapse; TBM: tracheobronchomalacia; EDAC: excessive dynamic airway collapse.