Respiratory symptoms, patient-reported outcome measures and pulmonary function at 3 and 6 months after coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) symptom onset

3 months6 monthsMean or median difference95% CIp-value
Respiratory symptoms
 UCSD dyspnoea score11 (3–26)9 (3–31)−1.0−4.0–2.00.53
 Cough VAS28 (8–60)20 (10–35)−4.6−18.7–8.40.41
Patient-reported outcome measures
 PHQ-92 (1–6)1 (0–6)0.50–1.50.16
 PSQI5 (3–8)5 (2–9)0−1.0–1.50.81
 EQ-5D utility0.87 (0.79–0.95)0.90 (0.81–0.95)−0.022−0.1–0.0030.12
 EQ-5D VAS75 (68–90)80 (75–90)6.35.0–9.5<0.001
Pulmonary function, % predicted
 FEV1/FVC87±1284±12−2.9−4.5–  −1.30.001

Data for 3 and 6 months are shown as mean±sd or median (IQR). Data denoted in bold indicate p-value <0.05. A paired t-test or Wilcoxon signed rank test were used to compare values between 3 and 6 months. UCSD: University of California, San Diego shortness of breath questionnaire; VAS: visual analogue scale; PHQ-9: Patient Health Questionnaire-9; PSQI: Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index; EQ-5D: EuroQol- 5 Dimension; FEV1: forced expiratory volume in 1 s; FVC: forced vital capacity; TLC: total lung capacity; DLCO: diffusing capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide.