Demographic characteristics amongst all UK Biobank individuals who attended an assessment centre and amongst UK Biobank individuals with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) test data

All UK BiobankUK Biobank with SARS-CoV-2 test data
Whole sampleWhole sample#PositiveNegative
Subjects n502 505107 41217 979 (17%)89 433 (83%)
Age at recruitment (mean±sd)56.53±8.1056.70±8.2553.52±8.5857.33±8.03
Age at SARS-CoV-2 test (mean±sd)68.23±8.2364.69±8.5869.00±7.94
 Other ethnic background1.
Ever asthma
Asthma age of onset (if asthma yes) (mean±sd)31.16±18.6931.67±18.8130.02±17.7132.02±19.02
Asthma onset (if asthma yes)
 Early-onset (<13 years)36.936.534.936.8
 Late onset (≥13 years)63.163.565.163.2
COPD diagnosis
COPD age of onset59.52±9.2858.82±10.1858.39±9.6458.89±10.26
Hay fever or eczema diagnosis (mean±sd)
Hay fever or eczema age of onset25.21±16.1325.68±16.3924.46±15.1425.91±16.61
Asthma medication (if asthma yes) (mean±sd)
 No asthma/COPD medications47.045.645.845.6
 Only non-steroidal medications15.414.814.714.8
 Steroid medications37.639.539.539.5
Hay fever medication (if hay fever yes)
 No hay fever medication82.681.582.381.4
 Medication; no antihistamines7.
Lung function+
 FEV1 at baseline, z-score0.37 (−0.32–1.08)0.41−0.29–1.12)0.44−0.27–1.16)0.40−0.30–1.11)
 FVC at baseline, z-score0.18 (−0.48–0.84)0.21 (−0.46–0.88)0.24 (−0.44–0.92)0.21 (−0.46–0.87)
 FEV1/FVC at baseline, z-score0.34 (−0.16–0.90)0.35 (−0.16–0.90)0.34 (−0.16–0.92)0.35 (−0.16–0.90)
Household income GBP
  <18 00018.919.720.119.6
 18 000 to 30 99921.521.220.221.4
 31 000 to 51 99922.322.123.621.8
 52 000 to 100 00017.817.217.317.2
  >100 0004.
 None of the following0.
 College or University degree32.430.625.131.7
 A levels/AS levels or equivalent10.910.49.910.5
 O levels/GCSEs or equivalent20.821.022.420.7
 CSEs or equivalent5.
 NVQ or HND or HNC or equivalent6.
 Other professional qualifications5.
Smoking history
Smoking pack-years19.00 (10.00–32.00)19.88 (10.13–33.00)20.00 (10.50–33.00)19.88 (10.00–33.00)
BMI (mean±sd)27.43±4.8027.83±4.9628.29±5.1027.74±4.93
White blood cell count6.65 (5.63–7.86)6.70 (5.69–7.90)6.73 (5.70–7.99)6.70 (5.69–7.90)
Eosinophil count0.14 (0.10–0.21)0.14 (0.10–0.21)0.14 (0.10–0.22)0.14 (0.10–0.21)
Close to major road
Greenspace percentage, buffer 300m29.53 (17.22–48.41)29.53 (17.17–48.21)27.44 (16.37–44.02)29.97 (17.35–49.11)

Values are % of participants, mean±sd or median (interquartile range) unless stated otherwise. FEV1: forced expiratory volume in 1 s; FVC: forced vital capacity; BMI: body mass index. #: sample of UK Biobank with SAR-CoV-2 test data differs from whole UK Biobank cohort (p<0.05) in all parameters except greenspace percentage, buffer 300 m. : all p-values are <0.001, except for FVC at baseline, z-score (p=0.002) and white blood cell count (p=0.008). p-values are comparing positive and negative test result: chi-square for categorical exposures, ANOVA for parametric and Mann–Whitney U-test (Wilcoxon rank sum test) for non-parametric analysis of variance for continuous variables. +: z-score means represent the mean standard deviation of lung function parameters compared with values for age-, sex- and race-matched individuals.