TABLE 1

Characteristics of included lung diseases

ConditionPrevalenceAge of diagnosisPrognosisEffect on female fertility/pregnancy
AsthmaCommon: 339 million worldwide [10]
Childhood asthma more common in males; adult asthma more common in females [11]
Usually diagnosed in childhood but can affect any age [12]Estimated mortality rate of 0.19 deaths per 100 000; higher in low to middle income countries [13]Some studies suggest a link between asthma and infertility. In pregnancy, asthma may improve or worsen – worsening is more common in severe asthmatics [3]
Cystic fibrosisRare: 1 in 2500–3000 live births – around 85 000 worldwide [14].
Most common in Caucasians, least common in Asians [15]
75% diagnosed by the age of 2 in Western societies [16]. Many countries have newborn screeningAverage life expectancy 35–40 years in USA and UK; lower in developing countries [17]Some impact on fertility; pregnancy carries risks of health complications for mother and child and increased treatment burden [3]
LAMVery rare: estimates between 3 and 5 cases per million [18]. Almost exclusively affects women [19]Average age of diagnosis is approximately 35 [20]Estimated median transplant-free survival time for LAM patients in the US is 29 years from symptom onset and 23 years from diagnosis [21]No reported impact on fertility; LAM may be accelerated by oestrogen so may develop or worsen in pregnancy and lead to health complications for the mother [5]
SarcoidosisRare: estimates between 20 and 400 per million depending on country [22]75% in UK diagnosed between ages 30 and 60 [23]; average age of diagnosis in USA is 55 [24]Usually normal; 60% will go into remission, 10% will develop serious disease that may shorten life expectancy [25]Usually no impact [7]
  • LAM: lymphangioleiomyomatosis.