TABLE 1

Baseline characteristics of patients with confirmed severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection who developed severe coronavirus disease 2019 stratified by patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU)

AllPatients admitted to the ICUp-value
YesNo
Patients, n40 44020 04420 396
Demographics
 Age, median (IQR)67 (55–78)61 (50–70)75 (62–84)<0.0001
 Female, n (%)14 939 (36.9)6473 (32.2)8466 (41.5)<0.0001
Chronic comorbidities, n (%)
 Number of comorbidities, median (IQR)2.0 (0.0–3.0)1.0 (0.0–2.0)2.0 (0.0–4.0)<0.0001
 Chronic arterial hypertension11 910 (29.5)5712 (28.5)6198 (30.4)<0.0001
 Chronic cardiac disease8161 (20.2)2493 (12.4)5668 (27.8)<0.0001
 Chronic cardiac arrhythmia38 (0.1)34 (0.2)4 (0.0)<0.0001
 Chronic pulmonary disease4848 (12.0)1423 (7.1)3425 (16.8)<0.0001
 Asthma3920 (9.7)1857 (9.3)2063 (10.1)<0.0001
 Other chronic respiratory disease873 (2.2)148 (0.7)725 (3.6)<0.0001
 Chronic neurological disorder2898 (7.2)798 (4.0)2100 (10.3)<0.0001
 Chronic rheumatic disorder2736 (6.8)794 (4.0)1942 (9.5)<0.0001
 Chronic kidney disease4151 (10.3)1252 (6.2)2899 (14.2)<0.0001
 Mild liver disease413 (1.0)187 (0.9)226 (1.1)0.08
 Moderate or severe liver disease454 (1.1)163 (0.8)291 (1.4)<0.0001
 Diabetes mellitus9141 (22.6)4343 (21.7)4798 (23.5)<0.0001
 Chronic haematological disorder1069 (2.6)354 (1.8)715 (3.5)<0.0001
 Chronic immunosuppressive disorders44 (0.1)44 (0.2)0 (0.0)<0.0001
 Chronic immunosuppressive medication537 (1.3)194 (1.0)343 (1.7)<0.0001
 Cancer680 (1.7)197 (1.0)483 (2.4)<0.0001
 Malignant neoplasm2453 (6.1)797 (4.0)1656 (8.1)<0.0001
 Solid organ transplant recipient192 (0.5)76 (0.4)116 (0.6)0.006
 AIDS/HIV178 (0.4)123 (0.6)55 (0.3)<0.0001
 Asplenia46 (0.1)45 (0.2)1 (0.0)<0.0001
 Dementia2774 (6.9)188 (0.9)2586 (12.7)<0.0001
 Obesity4623 (11.4)2802 (14.0)1821 (8.9)<0.0001
 Malnutrition628 (1.6)210 (1.0)418 (2.0)<0.0001
Symptoms on admission, n (%)
 Fever21 115 (52.2)10 578 (52.8)10 537 (51.7)0.02
 Abdominal pain2386 (5.9)1143 (5.7)1243 (6.1)0.09
 Bleeding (haemorrhage)463 (1.1)173 (0.9)290 (1.4)<0.0001
 Fatigue/malaise12 391 (30.6)6317 (31.5)6074 (29.8)<0.0001
 Shortness of breath23 955 (59.2)11 924 (59.5)12 031 (59.0)0.30
 Sore throat2464 (6.1)1619 (8.1)845 (4.1)<0.0001
 Dry cough21 065 (52.1)10 230 (51.0)10 835 (53.1)<0.0001
 Cough – productive6693 (16.6)3132 (15.6)3561 (17.5)<0.0001
 Cough – with haemoptysis804 (2.0)444 (2.2)360 (1.8)0.0001
 Wheezing2294 (5.7)850 (4.2)1444 (7.1)<0.0001
 Seizures352 (0.9)148 (0.7)204 (1.0)0.005
 Altered consciousness/confusion5964 (14.7)1759 (8.8)4205 (20.6)<0.0001
 Disturbance or loss of smell (anosmia)1047 (2.6)614 (3.1)433 (2.1)<0.0001
 Disturbance or loss of taste (ageusia)1275 (3.2)631 (3.1)644 (3.2)0.95
 Severe dehydration1614 (4.0)538 (2.7)1076 (5.3)<0.0001
 Vomiting/nausea5006 (12.4)2469 (12.3)2537 (12.4)0.71
 Diarrhoea5335 (13.2)2872 (14.3)2463 (12.1)<0.0001
 Muscle aches (myalgia)5562 (13.8)3397 (16.9)2165 (10.6)<0.0001
 Chest pain3823 (9.5)1951 (9.7)1872 (9.2)0.05
 Headache2918 (7.2)1747 (8.7)1171 (5.7)<0.0001
 Joint pain (arthralgia)1495 (3.7)739 (3.7)756 (3.7)0.91
 Skin ulcers419 (1.0)77 (0.4)342 (1.7)<0.0001
 Lower chest wall indrawing528 (1.3)334 (1.7)194 (1.0)<0.0001
 Skin rash304 (0.8)140 (0.7)164 (0.8)0.24
 Conjunctivitis110 (0.3)72 (0.4)38 (0.2)0.0001
 Runny nose (rhinorrhoea)927 (2.3)665 (3.3)262 (1.3)<0.0001
 Ear pain95 (0.2)49 (0.2)46 (0.2)0.69
 Lymphadenopathy170 (0.4)59 (0.3)111 (0.5)<0.0001
 Inability to walk279 (0.7)226 (1.1)53 (0.3)<0.0001
 Anorexia349 (0.9)285 (1.4)64 (0.3)<0.0001
 Asymptomatic272 (0.7)93 (0.5)179 (0.9)<0.0001
Physiological parameters on admission, median (IQR)
 Temperature, °C37.3 (36.7–38.2)37.4 (36.7–38.3)37.3 (36.6–38.1)<0.0001
 Heart rate, beats·min−193 (8–108)96 (84–110)91 (79–105)<0.0001
 Respiratory rate, breaths·min−124 (20–28)24 (20–30)22 (19–28)<0.0001
 Systolic blood pressure, mmHg130 (114–145)130 (115–144)130 (114–146)0.02
 Diastolic blood pressure, mmHg74 (65–83)75 (65–83)74 (64–84)0.0001
Continent of admission, n (%)
 Europe34 456 (85.2)12 427 (61.9)20 029 (98.2)<0.0001
 Asia3292 (8.1)3140 (15.6)152 (0.7)<0.0001
 South America1408 (3.5)1308 (6.5)100 (0.5)<0.0001
 North America2614 (6.4)2505 (12.5)109 (0.5)<0.0001
 Africa164 (0.4)159 (0.6)5 (0.0)<0.0001
 Oceania506 (1.3)505 (2.5)1 (0.0)<0.0001
Regional income stratification, n (%)
 High-income country35 956 (88.9)15 810 (78.8)20 146 (98.7)<0.0001
 Upper middle-income country1976 (4.8)1821 (9.1)155 (0.8)<0.0001
 Lower middle-income country2496 (6.2)2401 (11.9)96 (0.5)<0.0001
Clinical outcomesn=38 126n=18 831n=19 295
 Hospital LOS, median (IQR)10 (5–19)12 (6–23)8 (4–15)<0.0001
 28-day fatality ratio, n (%)13 329 (34.9)5797 (30.7)7532 (39.0)<0.0001
 90-day fatality ratio, n (%)14 394 (37.7)6358 (33.7)8036 (41.6)<0.0001

IQR: interquartile range; LOS: length of stay.