TABLE 2

Successfully completed lung function tests of HIV-unexposed (HU), HIV-exposed-uninfected (HEU) and perinatally HIV-infected children on early ART (HIV+)

HUHEUHIV+HU versus HIV+ (p-value)HEU versus HIV+ (p-value)
Spirometry
Subjects n76131120
FEV1 absolute L1.380 (1.205–1.648)1.430 (1.200–1.710)1.250 (1.110–1.450)p=0.0057p=0.0001
FEV1 Z-score−0.892±0.932−0.786±1.125−0.570±1.083p=0.1001p=0.2456
FVC absolute L1.550 (1.32–1.813)1.570 (1.340–1.860)1.355 (1.195–1.598)p=0.0009p=0.0002
FVC Z-score−0.894±0.898−0.953±1.196−0.669±1.207p=0.3695p=0.1199
FEV1/FVC absolute0.89 (0.853–0.940)0.914 (0.863–0.962)0.909 (0.879–0.954)p=0.1771p>0.9999
FEV1/FVC Z-score−0.031±1.2840.301±1.2050.1551±1.076p=0.5297p=0.5891
Plethysmography
Subjects n77128120
Total lung capacity (TLC) L2.481±0.4872.467±0.5612.258±0.3524p=0.0041p=0.0018
TLC Z-score−0.2194±1.050−0.406±1.1780.2906±0.9855p=0.0039p<0.0001
Residual volume (RV) L0.8612±0.25840.8746±0.25370.8734±0.2257p=0.9373p=0.9992
RV Z-score0.6125±0.76070.6251±0.71850.9497±0.6517p=0.0034p=0.001
RV/TLC34.75±8.15335.56±9.21038.69±8.441p=0.0058p=0.0139
RV/TLC Z-score1.399±0.83411.489±1.0591.733±0.8190p=0.0371p=0.0995
Functional residual capacity (FRC) L1.28 (1.13–1.55)1.33 (1.15–1.59)1.18 (1.06–1.36)p=0.0135p=0.0001
FRC Z-score0.3676±0.93910.4456±0.88290.7156±0.8926p=0.0234p=0.0504
Vital capacity (VCPLETH) L1.540 (1.285–1.860)1.530 (1.290–1.825)1.380 (1.195–1.598)p=0.0011p=0.0008
VCPLETH Z-score−2.179±0.8135−2.281±1.061−2.157±1.077p=0.9884p=0.6037
Diffusing capacity
Subjects n6210598
DLCO14.75 (13.22–16.87)14.77 (12.69–17.01)13.93 (12.46–16.09)p=0.1802p=0.2837
DLCO Z-score0.231 (−0.25–0.76)0.176 (−0.38–0.82)0.50 (0.01–1.28)p=0.0375p=0.0026
Alveolar volume (VA) L2.370 (2.068–2.800)2.380 (2.095–2.790)2.11 (1.938–2.315)p=0.0005p<0.0001
VA Z-score−0.44 (−1.15–0.18)−0.34 (−1.0–0.52)−0.19 (−0.68–0.36)p=0.1480p>0.9999
DLCO/VA6.400 (5.788–6.783)6.010 (5.395–6.680)6.565 (6.005–7.230)p=0.1564p<0.0001

Data are presented as mean±sd if normally distributed, median (interquartile range) if not normally distributed, unless otherwise stated. No statistically significant differences between HU and HEU. ART: antiretroviral therapy; FEV1: forced expiratory volume in 1 s; FVC: forced vital capacity; DLCO: diffusing capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide.