TABLE 1

Characteristics of participants

HIV-unexposed (HU)HIV-exposed (HEU)HIV-infected (HIV+)HU versus HIV+
(p-value)
HEU versus HIV+
(p-value)
Subjects n90162142
Age years8.8 (7.8–10.5)9.0 (7.9–10.6)8.4 (7.6–8.8)p=0.0004p<0.0001
Ethnicity n (%)African 90 (100)African 147 (91)
Mixed 15 (9)
African 129 (91)
Mixed 13 (9)
Height cm128.3 (122.5–138.8)129.5 (124.1–139.0)123.8 (119.0–128.5)p<0.0001p<0.0001
Height-for-age Z-score−0.56±1.1−0.53±1.09−0.87±1.00p=0.0848p=0.0187
Weight kg27.75 (23.50–34.98)27.2 (23.9–33.2)24.3 (22.0–26.7)p<0.0001p<0.0001
Weight-for-age Z-score−0.09±1.22−0.22±1.19−0.51±0.99p=0.0186p=0.0758
Age at ART initiation weeks17.6 (8.0–36.7)
Time interval years, first ART exposure to PFT7.65 (7.35–8.37)
CD4 count at PFT (n=126) cells·mm−31065 (786–1298)
HIV viral load at PFT (n=108) copies·mL−139 (19–302)
HIV viral suppression at PFT (%)100 (92.6)

Data are presented as mean±sd if normally distributed, median (interquartile range) if not normally distributed, unless otherwise stated. HIV viral suppression was defined as a HIV viral load <400 viral copies·mL−1. Compared with either one-way ANOVA with post hoc Tukey's multiple comparison test (normal distribution), Kruskal–Wallis with post hoc Dunn's multiple comparison test (not normally distributed) and Chi-square (categorical data). No statistically significant differences between HU and HEU. ART: antiretroviral therapy; PFT: pulmonary function test.