TABLE 1

Study population characteristics

No hormone therapyHormone therapyp-value
Patients116 01423 469
Age, years53.0±5.253.0±5.21.00
Age groups, years1.00
 45–4931 703 (27.3)6387 (27.2)
 50–5439 673 (34.2)8054 (34.3)
 55–5924 649 (21.2)4946 (21.1)
 60–6419 989 (17.2)4082 (17.4)
Years of asthma7.7±5.97.4±5.8<0.001
Household income levels1.00
 Lowest7 (0.0)20 (0.1)
 Second lowest4711 (4.1)1013 (4.3)
 Second highest37 355 (32.2)7558 (32.2)
 Highest73 941 (63.7)14 878 (63.4)
Level of education1.00
 Long-cycle higher education6818 (5.9)1419 (6.0)
 Medium-cycle higher education or bachelor's degree30 893 (26.6)6245 (26.6)
 Upper or lower secondary school36 696 (31.6)7387 (31.5)
 Vocational upper secondary school41 607 (35.9)8418 (35.9)
Inhaled anti-asthma medication
 Inhaled corticosteroids74 681 (64.4)15 800 (67.3)<0.001
 Mean±sem dose, µg406±5421±50.002
 Long-acting β2-agonists
  Formoterol23 014 (19.8)5142 (21.9)<0.001
  Salmeterol14 622 (12.6)3580 (15.3)<0.001
  Indacaterol326 (0.3)106 (0.5)<0.001
  Vilanterol232 (0.2)68 (0.3)<0.001
 Short-acting β2-agonists
  Terbutaline45 854 (39.5)9526 (40.6)<0.001
  Salbutamol22 035 (19.0)4908 (20.9)<0.001
  • Data are presented as n, mean±sd or n (%), unless otherwise stated.