TABLE 3

Demographic, clinical, functional, radiological, and microbiological characteristics of the three study groups: patients with primary immunodeficiency (Group A), patients with secondary immunodeficiency (Group B) and patients with idiopathic bronchiectasis (Group C)

VariablesGroup A (n=158)Group B (n=21)Group C (n=155)p-value
Demographics
 Female sex122 (77.2%)13 (61.9%)129 (83.2%)0.06
 Age, years65 (52–73)70 (65–73)62 (48–70)0.009#
 Body mass index, kg·m−221.1 (19.2–24.0)23.5 (21.9–25.5)21.4 (19.7–24.0)0.08
 Underweight27 (17.2%)2 (10.0%)20 (13.0%)0.48
 Former or current smoker63 (39.9%)13 (61.9%)77 (49.7%)0.07
Comorbidities
 GORD71 (44.9%)11 (52.4%)74 (47.7%)0.76
 Rhinosinusitis58 (36.7%)7 (33.3%)45 (29.0%)0.35
 Cardiovascular diseases66 (41.8%)12 (57.1%)43 (27.7%)0.004
 Systemic hypertension43 (27.2%)8 (38.1%)29 (18.7%)0.06
 Asthma24 (15.2%)1 (4.8%)29 (18.7%)0.25
 Osteoporosis24 (15.2%)10 (47.6%)26 (16.8%)0.001+
 COPD16 (10.1%)2 (9.5%)9 (5.8%)0.32
 Depression17 (10.8%)3 (14.3%)10 (6.5%)0.24
 Anxiety11 (7.0%)2 (9.5%)11 (7.1%)0.84
 History of neoplastic disease23 (14.6%)12 (57.1%)13 (8.4%)<0.0001§
 Diabetes6 (3.8%)7 (33.3%)3 (1.9%)<0.0001ƒ
Functional
 FEV1, % pred85.9±24.984.6±27.285.6±20.80.97
 FEV1 <50% pred13 (8.8%)2 (10.0%)9 (6.2%)0.62
 FVC, % pred98.5±23.297.5±25.197.3±18.60.89
Microbiological
 Chronic infection49 (36.6%)5 (29.4%)46 (35.4%)0.84
Chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa  infection31 (23.1%)3 (17.7%)30 (23.1%)0.95
Chronic Haemophilus influenzae infection7 (5.3%)3 (17.7%)8 (6.2%)0.14
 NTM-PD18 (13.4%)3 (17.7%)11 (8.5%)0.29
Clinical
 Exacerbations2 (1–3)1 (0–3)2 (1–3)0.97
 ≥3 exacerbations in the previous year51 (32.3%)8 (38.1%)49 (31.6%)0.84
 LTOT11 (7.0%)2 (9.5%)4 (2.6%)0.09
 Daily sputum104 (65.8%)15 (71.4%)107 (69.0%)0.77
 Sputum volume, mL7 (4.5–20.0)5.5 (3–50)6 (5–20)0.93
 Chronic macrolide therapy16 (10.1)1 (4.8)11 (7.1)0.62
 Chronic inhaled antibiotic therapy8 (5.1)1 (4.8)10 (6.5)0.86
Radiological
 Reiff score4 (2–6)4 (2–6)4 (3–6)0.99
 Number of lobes involved3 (2–4)4 (2–6)4 (2–5)0.59
Disease severity
 BSI score6 (4–9)6 (3.0–8.5)6 (3–8)0.11
 FACED score2 (1–3)2 (2–3)2 (1–3)0.06
 BACI score0 (0–3)6 (3–10)0 (0–3)0.0001##

Data are presented as median (interquartile range) or mean±sd, unless otherwise stated. GORD: gastro-oesophageal reflux disease; COPD: chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; FEV1, forced expiratory volume in 1 s; FVC: forced vital capacity; NTM-PD: nontuberculous mycobacterial pulmonary disease; LTOT: long-term oxygen therapy; BSI: bronchiectasis severity index; FACED: FEV1, age, chronic colonisation, extension, dyspnoea; BACI: before, after, control, impact. #; Group B versus Group C, p=0.008. : Group A versus Group C, p=0.009; Group B versus Group C, p=0.006. +: Group A versus Group B, p=0.0004; Group B versus Group C, p=0.001. §: Group A versus Group C, p<0.0001; Group B versus Group C, p<0.0001. ƒ: Group A versus Group C, p<0.0001; Group B versus Group C, p<0.0001. ##: Group A versus Group B, p<0.0001; Group B versus Group C, p<0.0001.