Meta-analyses only

First author, year [ref.]Relevant/total studies (n/n)PopulationInterventionOutcomeFindings
Critically low quality
 Aiello, 2008 [36]13/30School
Childcare centre
General community#
Hand hygieneReported or diagnosed respiratory illnessAll hand hygiene interventions versus no intervention leads to 21% reduction in respiratory illness (95% CI 5–34%)
Benzalkonium chloride-based hand sanitiser is 40% effective versus no intervention
Antimicrobial soap with education is the best method

#: general community settings refer to all other community-based settings not fitting into any of the major categories such as school, household, assisted living facility, childcare centre or workplace.