TABLE 1

Characteristics of included studies

Study lead author, year of publicationCountryStudy designNo. of participants (male/female)Age of participants yearsFollow-up time period(s)Pulmonary function tests reportedCT thorax features reportedReport outcomes by acute infection severity
Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)
Antonio GE, et al. 2003 [11]Hong Kong, ChinaLongitudinal24 (10/14)39±–#36.5 days+
Chang YC, et al. 2005 [18]Taiwan, ChinaLongitudinal40 (15/25)42.8±12.3#51.8, 140.7 days+
Chen JH, et al. 2006 [19]ChinaLongitudinal111 (−/–)-3, 18 months+
Chiang CH, et al. 2004 [20]Taiwan, ChinaLongitudinal14 (3/11)36.1±13.9#6 months++
Han Y, et al. 2003 [21]ChinaCross-sectional69 (29/40)-59.7 days++
Hsu HH, et al. 2004 [22]Taiwan, ChinaCross-sectional19 (6/13)42.5±12.4#31.2 days++
Hui DS, et al. 2005 [23]Hong Kong, ChinaLongitudinal97 (39/58)36.9±9.5#3, 6, 12 months+
Jin ZY, et al. 2003 [24]ChinaCross-sectional100 (−/−)2 months+
Li L, et al. 2015 [25]ChinaLongitudinal25 (3/22)45.8±12.2#10 years+
Li TST, et al. 2006 [26]ChinaLongitudinal59 (34/25)47±15.7#12 months+
Liu Y, et al. 2007 [27]ChinaLongitudinal37 (−/−)1, 3, 12 months; 3 years+
Ngai JC, et al. 2010 [28]ChinaLongitudinal55 (19/36)44.4±13.7#3, 6, 12, 18 months; 2 years+
Ong KC, et al. 2005 [29]SingaporeCross-sectional94 (24/70)37±12#1 year+
Ong KC, et al. 2004 [30]SingaporeCross-sectional46 (12/34)37.3±10.7#3 months+
Su MC, et al. 2007 [31]Taiwan, ChinaCross-sectional13 (3/10)31.4±4.8#14 months+
Tansey CM, et al. 2007 [32]CanadaLongitudinal117 (39/78)42 (33–51)3, 6, 12 months+
Wang CH, et al. 2005 [33]Taiwan, ChinaLongitudinal12 (3/9)60, 90 days+
Wong KT, et al. 2004 [34]ChinaLongitudinal99 (41/58)39.4±12.8#48 days; 3, 6 months+
Wu X, et al. 2016 [35]ChinaLongitudinal11 (3/8)36.1±5.5#3, 6 months; 7 years+
Xie L, et al. 2005 [36]ChinaLongitudinal383 (160/223)38.2±13.6#45 days; 2, 4, 6, 11 months+
Zhang P, et al. 2020 [37]ChinaLongitudinal71 (15/56)3, 15 years+
Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS)
Park WB, et al. 2018 [38]South KoreaLongitudinal73 (43/30)51±13#12 months+
Severe acute respiratory syndrome 2 (COVID-19)
Anastasio F, et al. 2021 [39]ItalyCross-sectional379 (174/205)56 (49–63)135 days++
Aparisi A, et al. 2021 [40]SpainCross-sectional70 (25/45)54.8±11.9#3 months+
Armange L, et al. 2021 [41]FranceCross-sectional23 (5/18)44 (34–50)6–8 weeks+
Arnold DT, et al. 2020 [42]UKCross-sectional110 (68/42)60 (44–76)83 days+++
Balbi M, et al. 2021 [43]ItalyCross-sectional91 (60/31)66 (59–73)105 days+++
Barisione G, et al. 2021 [44]ItalyCross-sectional94 (65/29)62±14 mild; 61±10 moderate; 60±11 severe#117 days++
Bellan M, et al. 2021 [45]ItalyCross-sectional238 (142/96)61 (50–71)4 months+
Boari GEM, et al. 2021 [46]ItalyCross-sectional94 (−/−)4 months++
Cao J, et al. 2021 [47]ChinaLongitudinal62 (35/27)43.1±15.5#1 month+
Cortes-Telles A, et al. 2021 [48]MexicoCross-sectional186 (113/73)47±13#2 months++
Crisafulli E, et al. 2021 [49]ItalyCross-sectional81 (54/27)66.5±11.2#4 months+
D'Cruz RF, et al. 2021 [50]UKCross-sectional119 (74/45)58.7±14.4#61 days+
Daher A, et al. 2021 [51]GermanyCross-sectional18 (11/7)61±7#6 months++
Darley DR, et al. 2020 [52]AustraliaCross-sectional78 (51/27)47±16#113 days++
de Graaf MA, et al. 2021 [53]NetherlandsCross-sectional81 (51/30)60.8±13#6 weeks++
Debeaumont D, et al. 2021 [54]FranceCross-sectional23 (12/11)59±13#6 months++
Dorelli G, et al. 2021 [55]ItalyCross-sectional28 (22/6)55.3 (52.3–61.9)169 days+
Ego A, et al. 2021 [56]BelgiumCross-sectional11 (8/3)51.9±8.8#178 days++
Frija-Masson J, et al. 2021a [57]FranceCross-sectional151 (91/55)57 (49–67)3 months+
Frija-Masson J, et al. 2021 [58]FranceCross-sectional137 (69/68)59 (50–68)3 months+
Froidure A, et al. 2021 [59]BelgiumCross-sectional134 (79/55)60 (53–68)3 months+++
Gianella P, et al. 2021 [60]SwitzerlandCross-sectional39 (30/9)62.5 (51.3–71)3 months++
Gonzalez J, et al. 2021 [61]SpainCross-sectional62 (46/16)60 (48–65)3 months+++
Grist JT, et al. 2021 [62]UKCase–control9 (6/3)57±7#163 days+
Guler SA, et al. 2021 [63]SwitzerlandCohort113 (67/46)60.3±12 severe; 52.9±11 mild#128 days+++
Han X, et al. 2021 [64]ChinaLongitudinal114 (80/34)54±12#175 days++
Huang C, et al. 2021 [65]ChinaCohort1733 (897/836)57 (47–65)186 days++
Huang Y, et al. 2020 [66]ChinaCross-sectional57 (26/31)46.7±13.8#1 month+
Jiang A, et al. 2021 [67]CanadaLongitudinal15 (12/3)53±15#186 days++
Joris M, et al. 2021 [68]BelgiumLongitudinal14 (10/4)59 (52–62)3 months++
Komici K, et al. 2021 [69]ItalyCross-sectional24 (−/−)23.5 (20–25.5)1 month++
Labaraca G, et al. 2021 [70]ChileCross-sectional60 (32/28)39.2±14.3 mild; 47.4±11 moderate; 50±10.3 severe#4 months+++
Lerum TV, et al. 2021 [71]NorwayCross-sectional103 (54/49)59 (49–72)3 months+++
Li X, et al. 2021 [72]ChinaLongitudinal289 (141/148)33.1±17.5 group A; 50.7±13.3 group B#61–90 days+
Li H, et al. 2020 [73]ChinaCohort13 (4/9)35.8±−#18.6, 24.6 days+
Liang L, et al. 2020 [74]ChinaCross-sectional76 (21/55)41.3±13.8#3 months++
Liu D, et al. 2020 [75]ChinaLongitudinal149 (67/82)43±−#7, 14, 21 days+
Liu C, et al. 2020 [76]ChinaLongitudinal51 (21/30)46.9±14.9 male; 46.7±13.6# female10, 31 days+
Liu M, et al. 2021a [77]ChinaLongitudinal41 (22/19)50±14#7 months+
Liu M, et al. 2021b [78]ChinaLongitudinal52 (26/26)50.5 (41.3–57)1 month++
Lombardi F, et al. 2021 [79]ItalyCross-sectional87 (58/29)58±13#35 days+
Lopez-Romero S, et al. 2021 [80]MexicoLongitudinal30 (16/14)54 (40–62)54, 120 days+
Marvisi M, et al. 2020 [81]ItalyCross-sectional90 (60/30)66±15#70 days++
McGroder CF, et al. 2021 [82]USACross-sectional76 (45/31)54±13.7#4 months++
Miwa M, et al. 2021 [83]JapanCross-sectional17 (14/3)63 (59–57)100 days+++
 Mohr A, et al. 2021 [84]GermanyCross-sectional10 (6/4)50±13.1#115 days+
Myall KJ, et al. 2021 [85]UKLongitudinal35 (25/10)60.5±10.7#60 days+
Noel-Savina E, et al. 2021 [86]FranceCross-sectional72 (55/17)60.5±12.8#4 months++
Nunez-Fernandez M, et al. 2021 [87]SpainCross-sectional225 (129/96)62 (50–71)12 weeks+
Pan M, et al. 2021 [88]ChinaCross-sectional155 (87/68)42.0±15.3#2 months++
Parker AJ, et al. 2021 [89]UKCross-sectional36 (23/13)52.5±11.4#10.9 weeks++
Parry AH, et al. 2021 [90]IndiaCross-sectional81 (50/31)51.8±11.7#3 months+
Pasau T, et al. 2021 [91]BelgiumCross-sectional32 (26/6)59 (46–75)3 months++
Polese J, et al. 2021 [92]BrazilCross-sectional41 (30/11)51±14#36 days++
Qin W, et al. 2021 [93]ChinaCross-sectional81 (34/47)59±14#3 months+++
Raman B, et al. 2021 [94]UKCohort58 (34/24)55.4±13.2#2.3 months+
Remy-Jardin M, et al. 2021 [95]FranceCross-sectional55 (42/13)59.7±13.7#3 months++
Riou N, et al. 2021 [96]FranceLongitudinal81 (59/22)61 (51–68)3, 6 months+++
Salem AM, et al. 2021 [97]Saudi ArabiaCase–control20 (13/7)47.1±11.6#3 months+
Santus P, et al. 2021 [98]ItalyLongitudinal20 (14/6)58.2±15.5#6 weeks+++
Shah AS, et al. 2020 [99]CanadaCross-sectional60 (41/19)67 (54–74)12 weeks++
Sibila O, et al. 2021 [100]SpainCross-sectional172 (98/74)56.1±19.8#3 months+
Sonnweber T, et al. 2021 [101]AustriaLongitudinal145 (82/63)57±14#60, 100 days+
Strumiliene E, et al. 2021 [102]LithuaniaCross-sectional51 (25/26)56±11.7#2 months++
Tabatabaei SMH, et al. 2020 [103]IranCross-sectional52 (32/20)50.2±13.1#3 months+
Trinkmann F, et al. 2021 [104]GermanyCross-sectional246 (108/138)48±15#2 months++
Truffaut L, et al. 2021 [105]FranceCross-sectional22 (16/6)54.6±10.9#3 months+++
van den Borst B, et al. 2020 [106]NetherlandsCross-sectional124 (74/50)59±14#3 months+++
van der Sar-van der Brugge S, et al. 2021 [107]NetherlandsCross-sectional101 (58/43)66.4±12.6#6 weeks++
Van Gassel RJJ, et al. 2021a [108]NetherlandsLongitudinal46 (32/14)62 (55–68)3, 7 months++
Van Gassel RJJ, et al. 2021b [109]NetherlandsLongitudinal46 (32/14)62 (55–68)3 months+++
Varughese RA, et al. 2021 [110]CanadaCase–control7 (0/7)53±4#158 days+
Venturelli S, et al. 2021 [111]ItalyCross-sectional767 (515/252)63±13.6#81 days+
Van Zeller C, et al. 2021 [112]UKCross-sectional15 (13/2)51.1±16.1#3 months+++
Wang Z, et al. 2021 [113]ChinaLongitudinal25 (13/12)43 (18–58)8 weeks+
Writing committee for the COMEBAC study group. 2021 [114]FranceCross-sectional478 (277/201)60.9±16.1#4 months+++
Wu Q, et al. 2021 [115]ChinaCross-sectional54 (32/22)43.4±15 moderate; 54.4±13.6 severe#6 months+++
Wu X, et al. 2021 [116]ChinaLongitudinal83 (47/36)60 (52–66)3 months+++
Xu J, et al. 2021 [117]ChinaCohort103 (46/57)56 (44.75–63.25) RM group; 61 (55–68) RC group3 months++
Yan X, et al. 2021 [118]ChinaCross-sectional119 (49/70)53.0±12.2#12 months++
Yang ZL, et al. 2021 [119]ChinaCross-sectional166 (69/97)57±15#56 days+
Zampogna E, et al. 2021 [120]ItalyCross-sectional30 (21/9)63.6±12.2#1 months+
Zhang S, et al. 2021 [121]ChinaCross-sectional40 (19/21)57 (40–68)8 months+++
Zhong L, et al. 2020 [122]ChinaCross-sectional52 (−/−)43.3±13.6# moderate; 49.2±13.5# severe19.7 days++
Zhou M, et al. 2021 [123]ChinaCohort175 (75/100)46 (39.5–56.75) asymptomatic; 56 (47.5–63) mild/moderate; 63 (56–69) severe3 months+++
Zou JN, et al. 2021 [124]ChinaLongitudinal284 (122/162)55.9±1.0 fibrosis group; 47.3±2.9 no fibrosis group#30, 60, 90 days++

CT: computed tomography; MRI: magnetic resonance imaging; USS: ultrasound; 6MWD: 6-min walk distance; CPET: cardiopulmonary exercise test; PET-CT: positive emission tomography-CT. +: present in study text; #: mean±sd; : median (interquartile range).