Inclusion and exclusion criteria

PopulationCommunity setting (e.g. school, household, workplace, childcare centre, assisted living facility)Healthcare workers (including dentists, mainly taking place in clinics)
InterventionAny nonpharmaceutical intervention (e.g. facemask and variations, hand hygiene with soap, sanitiser or education, nasal or oral hygiene with over-the-counter products, school closure)Pharmaceutical interventions (e.g. prescription medications, vaccines, professional oral hygiene, antiviral agents), surface or object disinfection
Population-scale interventions (e.g. mass quarantine, airport screening, lockdowns, travel restrictions)
ComparisonNo intervention or control
OutcomeSelf-reported or clinically diagnosed ARI, ILI, CRI
Laboratory-confirmed influenza
Bacterial infection, fungal infection, parasitic infection
LanguageEnglishLanguage other than English
Study typeSystematic reviews of interventional, observational, epidemiological studiesNonsystematic reviews, systematic reviews containing modelling or simulation studies, umbrella reviews, meta-reviews
Time period1 January 2020 to 31 December 2020Before 1 January 2020 or after 31 December 2020
OtherMust have at least two contributing authorsSingle author, full text unretrievable

ARI: acute respiratory illness; ILI: influenza-like illness; CRI: clinical respiratory infection.