TABLE 2

Male and female Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966 study participants by no pneumonia episodes and those with at least one pneumonia episode (age 5–52 years, n=6750) in relation to pneumonia risk factors

MaleFemale
No pneumonia1 pneumoniap-valueNo pneumonia1 pneumoniap-value
Subjects30793671
Sex2812 (91.3)267 (8.7)3489 (95.0)182 (5.0)
Education
 Basic263 (86.2)42 (13.8)0.006211 (94.6)12 (5.4)0.162
 Secondary1895 (91.6)174 (8.4)2193 (94.1)137 (5.8)
 Tertiary638 (91.9)56 (8.1)1065 (95.7)48 (4.3)
BMI
 <30 kg·m−21728 (91.6)158 (8.4)0.6752343 (94.9)125 (5.1)0.144
 ≥30 kg·m−2457 (91.0)45 (9.0)602 (93.5)42 (6.5)
Waist circumference#
 Low865 (91.1)85 (8.9)0.498945 (95.3)47 (4.7)0.258
 High1295 (91.8)115 (8.2)1960 (94.3)119 (5.7)
Smoking
 Never1257 (92.6)101 (7.4)0.0201969 (95.4)94 (4.6)0.014
 Current or former1504 (90.2)164 (9.8)1459 (93.6)100 (6.4)
Alcohol consumption+
 No2331 (91.1)228 (8.9)0.9203194 (94.6)181 (5.4)0.921
 Yes468 (91.2)45 (8.8)272 (94.8)15 (5.2)
Asthma
 No2636 (91.6)241 (8.4)<0.0013194 (95.1)165 (4.9)<0.001
 Yes169 (83.7)33 (16.3)280 (89.7)32 (10.3)
Cardiovascular disease
 No2519 (91.9)221 (8.1)<0.0013188 (95.0)167 (5.0)0.001
 Yes286 (84.4)53 (15.6)286 (90.5)30 (9.5)
Cardiac arrhythmias
 No2657 (91.4)251 (8.6)0.0313303 (94.8)180 (5.2)0.022
 Yes148 (86.5)23 (13.5)171 (91.0)17 (9.0)
Ischaemic heart disease
 No2722 (91.5)252 (8.5)<0.0013432 (94.7)193 (5.3)0.313
 Yes83 (79.0)22 (21.0)42 (91.3)4 (8.7)
Valve disease
 No2775 (91.2)267 (8.8)0.0313443 (94.7)194 (5.3)0.369
 Yes30 (81.1)7 (18.9)31 (91.2)3 (8.8)
Cardiomyopathy/heart failure
 No2784 (91.3)266 (8.7)<0.0013451 (94.7)195 (5.3)0.558
 Yes21 (72.4)8 (27.6)23 (92.0)2 (8.0)
Other cardiovascular disease
 No2755 (91.3)264 (8.7)0.0333401 (94.8)188 (5.2)0.023
 Yes50 (83.3)10 (16.7)73 (89.0)9 (11.0)
Liver disease
 No2767 (91.1)269 (8.9)0.5273439 (94.7)191 (5.3)0.008
 Yes38 (88.4)5 (11.6)35 (85.4)6 (14.6)
Kidney disease
 No2776 (91.3)266 (8.7)0.0063437 (94.8)189 (5.2)<0.001
 Yes29 (78.4)8 (21.6)37 (82.2)8 (17.8)
Sarcoidosis
 No2652 (90.7)271 (9.3)0.9723400 (94.5)196 (5.5)0.816
 Yes30 (90.9)3 (9.1)22 (95.7)1 (4.3)
Rheumatoid arthritis
 No2659 (90.8)269 (9.2)0.1153347 (94.7)187 (5.3)0.009
 Yes23 (82.1)5 (17.9)75 (88.2)10 (11.8)
Psoriasis
 No2639 (90.7)269 (9.3)0.7823381 (94.7)190 (5.3)0.005
 Yes43 (89.6)5 (10.4)41 (85.4)7 (14.6)
Coeliac disease
 No2668 (90.8)271 (9.2)0.2323381 (94.5)196 (5.5)0.379
 Yes14 (82.4)3 (17.6)41 (97.6)1 (2.4)
Vasculitis
 No2674 (90.8)272 (9.2)0.2413396 (94.6)195 (5.4)0.691
 Yes8 (80)2 (20)26 (92.9)2 (7.1)
Purpura
 No2669 (90.8)272 (9.2)0.5863400 (94.6)195 (5.4)0.531
 Yes13 (86.7)2 (13.3)22 (91.7)2 (8.3)
Multiple sclerosis
 No2680 (90.7)274 (9.3)0.6513401 (94.6)194 (5.4)0.126
 Yes2 (100)0 (0)21 (87.5)3 (12.5)
Diabetes
 No diabetes2610 (91.3)249 (8.7)0.1123323 (94.8)183 (5.2)0.002
 Type 1 diabetes26 (96.3)1 (3.7)12 (75.0)4 (25.0)
 Type 2 diabetes165 (87.3)24 (12.7)138 (93.2)10 (6.8)
Cancer, solid
 No2662 (90.7)273 (9.3)0.4573406 (94.6)195 (5.4)0.288
 Yes20 (95.2)1 (4.8)16 (88.9)2 (11.1)
Haematological
 No2666 (90.7)274 (9.3)0.2003412 (94.6)193 (5.4)<0.001
 Yes16 (100)0 (0)10 (71.4)4 (28.6)

#: waist circumference indicates ≥94 cm for males and ≥80 cm for females; : self-reported data at the age of 46 years on smoking (no smoking history versus former or current smokers); +: self-reported data at the age of 46 years on excessive alcohol consumption (males ≥30 g·day−1, females ≥20 g·day−1). Pearson's Chi-squared test was used.