TABLE 2

Age-specific and age-standardised prevalence of chronic cough in the general adult population

VariablesTotalMenWomenp-value
Total3.6 (3.1–4.1)4.6 (3.9–5.4)2.6 (2.1–3.3)0.0005
Age years
 20–492.4 (1.9–3.1)3.0 (2.2–4.2)1.7 (1.1–2.7)0.0433
 ≥506.0 (5.3–6.8)7.7 (6.7–8.8)4.3 (3.6–5.0)<0.0001
p-value for difference<0.0001<0.0001<0.0001
COPD#
 No3.2 (2.7–3.7)4.1 (3.4–5.0)2.3 (1.8–3.0)0.0006
 Yes6.0 (3.5–10.0)5.2 (4.0–6.7)6.9 (2.5–18.1)0.5777
p-value for difference0.08450.11550.1846
SAD
 No2.8 (2.3–3.5)3.7 (3.0–4.5)2.0 (1.5–2.8)0.0010
 Yes4.4 (3.7–5.2)5.4 (4.2–6.9)3.2 (2.4–4.2)0.0101
p-value for difference0.00390.02290.0233

Values are represented as percentage (95% confidence interval). p-value for difference is for the comparison of binary variables. All the calculations of p-values are weighted, taking into account the multistage cluster sampling design and based on χ2 test. SAD: small airway dysfunction. #: COPD was defined as those individuals with post-bronchodilator FEV1/FVC <70%. : SAD was diagnosed on the basis of at least two of the following three indicators of lung function being <65% of predicted: maximal mid-expiratory flow, forced expiratory flow (FEF) 50% and FEF 75% after bronchodilator inhalation.