Multiple adjusted odds ratios of chronic cough in the general Chinese adult population

VariablesOR (95% CI)p-value
Male0.93 (0.63–1.37)0.7045
Age (10 years)1.43 (1.26–1.61)<0.0001
Rural resident0.84 (0.59–1.19)0.3094
Smoking status
 Never-smoker1.00 (Reference)
 Ever-smoker#2.61 (2.10–3.25)<0.0001
Biomass use1.04 (0.86–1.26)0.6621
Annual mean PM2.5 µg·m−3
 <501.00 (Reference)-
 50–750.96 (0.59–1.57)0.8784
 ≥751.05 (0.62–1.79)0.8471
Education level
 Primary school and lower1.00 (Reference)-
 Middle and high school0.80 (0.61–1.05)0.1083
 College and higher0.97 (0.68–1.39)0.8770
Occupational exposure1.41 (1.10–1.80)0.0086
Visible mould spots in the current residence
 Rarely1.00 (Reference)-
 Sometimes1.31 (0.91–1.90)0.1414
 Often1.19 (0.73–1.93)0.4652
History of pneumonia or bronchitis during childhood2.23 (1.49–3.34)0.0006
Parental history of respiratory diseases1.23 (0.95–1.59)0.1165
Body mass index kg·m−2
 <18.51.45 (0.97–2.16)0.0662
 18.5–24.91.00 (Reference)-
 ≥251.23 (0.94–1.61)0.1197
Allergic rhinitis2.84 (1.98–4.09)<0.0001

The variables listed in the table are all included in the model. The logistic regression analyses are weighted, taking into account the multistage cluster sampling design. OR: odds ratio; 95% CI: 95% confidence interval; PM2.5: particulate matter with a diameter <2.5 µm. #: ever-smoker was defined as having smoked equal to or >100 cigarettes in the lifetime.