TABLE 1

Sociodemographic and exacerbation characteristics by COPD groups

VariablesBE-COPDTE-COPDTotalp-value
Patients n75135210
Age, years76±1173±974±100.004
Female67 (89)48 (36)115 (55)<0.001
Rural residence29 (39)8 (6)37 (18)<0.001
Low socioeconomic status67 (89)83 (62)150 (71)<0.001
Low self-reported adherence to preventive measures28 (38)41 (31)69 (33)0.272
Strict indoor isolation36 (30)28 (45)64 (35)0.035
FEV1 % of predicted70±2257±2262±23<0.001
2019–2020 patients with exacerbations19 (25)37 (27)56 (27)0.745
2020–2021 patients with exacerbations13 (17)23 (17)36 (17)0.956

Data presented as mean±sd or n (%), unless otherwise stated. BE-COPD: COPD due to exposure to biomass smoke; TE-COPD: COPD due to exposure to tobacco smoke; FEV1: forced expiratory volume in the first second.