TABLE 1

Clinical characteristics of patients with or without asthma (n=33 815)

Patient characteristicsAsthmatic patientsNon-asthmatic patientsp-value
Subjects n427629 539
Age years, mean±sd42.2±13.743.8±14.2<0.001
Age 46 to ≤65years1394 (32.6)10 729 (36.3)
BMI kg m−2, median (IQR), n=33 34725.3 (22.3–29.4)24.8 (22.0–28.3)<0.001
Female sex, n=33 7742989 (70.0)18 312 (62.1)<0.001
Comorbid conditions
 Overweight (BMI 25–30 kg m−2), n=33 3471210 (28.6)8704 (29.9)<0.001
 Obesity (BMI >30 kg m−2), n=33 347979 (23.1)5124 (17.6)
 Hypertension541 (12.7)3591 (12.2)0.369
 Diabetes193 (4.5)1494 (5.1)0.136
 Heart failure102 (2.4)551 (1.9)0.024
 COPD217 (5.1)378 (1.3)<0.001
 Coronary artery disease72 (1.7)393 (1.3)0.074
 Cancer under treatment34 (0.8)355 (1.2)0.024
 Chronic renal disease61 (1.4)325 (1.1)0.072
Respiratory symptoms
 Cough2916 (68.2)18 120 (61.3)<0.001
 Shortness of breath2898 (67.8)13 205 (44.7)<0.001
 Chest pain1371 (32.1)7043 (23.8)<0.001
 Chest tightness1491 (34.9)7215 (24.4)<0.001
General symptoms
 Fatigue3758 (87.9)25 368 (85.9)<0.001
 Fever2062 (48.2)14 405 (48.8)0.517
 Shivers2439 (57.0)15 808 (53.5)<0.001
 Myalgia2505 (58.6)15 932 (53.9)<0.001
Gastrointestinal symptoms
 Anorexia1695 (39.6)11 387 (38.5)0.176
 Nausea/vomiting1210 (28.3)6838 (23.1)<0.001
 Diarrhoea1655 (38.7)10 175 (34.4)<0.001
Neurological symptoms
 Anosmia1300 (30.4)9924 (33.6)<0.001
 Ageusia1326 (31.0)9700 (32.8)0.018
Cutaneous symptoms
 Rash507 (11.9)2614 (8.8)<0.001
 Chilblains88 (2.1)530 (1.8)0.253
 Conjunctivitis392 (9.2)2021 (6.8)<0.001

Qualitative data are expressed as frequency (% of total). In case of variable with missing data, the number of patients with available information is specified. BMI: body mass index; IQR: interquartile range presented as first quartile (Q1)–third quartile (Q3); sd: standard deviation.