TABLE 1

Patient characteristics

RC versus TCTC-noAPP versus TC-APP
RCTCp-valueTC-noAPPTC-APPp-value
Patients711178136
Males48 (67.6%)80 (68.4%)1.00057 (70.4%)23 (63.9%)0.631
Age, years57.8±11.659.5±12.60.33860.6±12.957.1±11.60.142
Smoking exposure0.0930.131
 Never-smokers25 (35.2%)51 (43.6%)34 (42.0%)17 (47.2%)
 Smokers17 (23.9%)36 (30.8%)22 (27.2%)14 (38.9%)
 Former smokers29 (40.8%)30 (25.6%)25 (30.9%)5 (13.9%)
BMI, kg·m−236.6±9.6334.8±7.210.18134.9±7.0534.7±7.660.884
BMI category0.2500.239
 Normal or healthy weight2 (2.82%)7 (5.98%)3 (3.70%)4 (11.1%)
 Overweight18 (25.4%)19 (16.2%)15 (18.5%)4 (11.1%)
 Obese51 (71.8%)91 (77.8%)63 (77.8%)28 (77.8%)
Arterial hypertension44 (62.0%)67 (57.3%)0.62948 (59.3%)19 (52.8%)0.652
Diabetes mellitus16 (22.5%)25 (21.4%)0.99518 (22.2%)7 (19.4%)0.925
Dyslipidaemia32 (45.1%)45 (38.5%)0.45932 (39.5%)13 (36.1%)0.887
Gastro-oesophageal reflux disease4 (5.63%)2 (1.71%)0.2011 (1.23%)1 (2.78%)0.523
Kidney disease5 (7.04%)4 (3.42%)0.3023 (3.70%)1 (2.78%)1.000
Heart disease18 (25.4%)18 (15.4%)0.13613 (16.0%)5 (13.9%)0.983
Respiratory disease0.0331.000
 COPD5 (7.04%)10 (8.55%)7 (8.64%)3 (8.33%)
 Asthma6 (8.45%)2 (1.71%)2 (2.47%)0 (0.00%)
 Interstitial lung disease2 (2.82%)0 (0.00%)0 (0.00%)0 (0.00%)
Neurological disease6 (8.45%)9 (7.69%)1.0008 (9.88%)1 (2.78%)0.271
Hypothyroidism4 (5.63%)3 (2.56%)0.4291 (1.23%)2 (5.56%)0.224
Migraine0 (0.00%)4 (3.42%)0.2993 (3.70%)1 (2.78%)1.000
Fibromyalgia1 (1.41%)3 (2.56%)1.0002 (2.47%)1 (2.78%)1.000
Depression/anxiety7 (9.86%)17 (14.5%)0.48114 (17.3%)3 (8.33%)0.325
Malignant disease history5 (7.04%)2 (1.71%)0.1062 (2.47%)0 (0.00%)1.000
Educational level0.1750.465
 Reading and writing difficulties or no high school40 (58.0%)78 (69.0%)56 (71.8%)22 (62.9%)
 High school and associated degree or college and graduate degree29 (42.0%)35 (31.0%)22 (28.2%)13 (37.1%)

Data are presented as mean±sd unless otherwise stated. RC: retrospective cohort; TC: telemedicine cohort; TC-noAPP: telemedicine cohort not using smartphone application; TC-APP: telemedicine cohort using smartphone application; BMI: body mass index.