TABLE 1

Clinical, haemodynamic and echocardiographic characteristics of the study population based on the number of cardiovascular comorbidities

Group AGroup BGroup CBaseline6 months FU
Baseline6 months FUΔp-valueBaseline6 months FUΔp-valueBaseline6 months FUΔp-value1 versus 21 versus 32 versus 31 versus 21 versus 32 versus 3
p-valuep-valuep-valuep-valuep-valuep-value
Age years49.7±1559.9±1461.8±130.0000.000ns
Sex, female, n (%)65 (67.7)37 (68.5)18 (58.0)ns<0.01<0.01
DLCO % pred54±1153±1351±3nsnsns
NYHA2.8±0.42.2±0.6−0.5±0.60.00012.9±0.32.4±0.6−0.4±060.00012.6±0.52.5±0.6−0.1±0.4nsnsns0.02nsnsns
Class I–II, n (%)20 (20.8)65 (67.7)9 (16.7)31 (57.4)8 (25.8)11 (35.5)
Class III, n (%)67 (69.8)31 (32.3)40 (74.0)21 (38.9)20 (64.5)13 (41.9)
Class IV, n (%)9 (9.4)0 (0)5 (9.3)2 (3.7)3 (9.7)7 (22.6)
6MWT m337±96392±103+55±710.0001313±108352±129+39±1040.005321±103343±109+22±880.04nsnsnsnsnsns
Heart rate, beats·min−178±1773±13−5±160.00179±1976±12−3±20ns78±1371±25−7±24nsnsnsnsnsnsns
NT-proBNP pg·mL−1944±708465±359−478±5170.0001824±574391±198−433±5210.0031268±846579±501−689±8390.01nsns0.009nsnsns
Haemodynamics
RAP mmHg9.0±4.46.8±3.8−2.1±4.30.00018.3±4.97.6±4.2−0.7±4.5ns8.0±5.55.9±4.9−2.2±3.20.02nsnsnsnsnsns
mPAP mmHg51±1243±16−7.5±130.000149±1243±9−6.5±100.000149±1144±13−4.9±9nsnsnsnsnsnsns
WP mmHg9.7±3.28.8±3.810.9±3.210.2±3.510±3.510±3.3nsnsnsnsnsns
CI L·min·m−22.3±0.93.1±0.9+0.8±0.90.00012.3±0.62.8±0.6+0.5±0.60.00012.3±0.62.8±0.9+0.5±0.60.002nsnsnsnsnsns
PVR WU12.4±6.57.4±4.2−4.8±5.60.000110.3±4.47.2±2.8−3.1±3.40.000110.6±4.98.7±3.9−2.0±2.60.01nsnsnsnsnsns
Echocardiography
RV/LV ratio<0.01<0.01<0.01nsnsns<0.01<0.01ns
 <1, n (%)3 (3.1)22 (22.9)3 (5.6)8 (14.8)0 (0)4 (12.9)
 =1, n (%)15 (15.6)18 (18.7)7 (13)9 (16.7)5 (16.1)4 (12.9)
 >1, n (%)78 (81.3)56 (58.2)44 (81.5)37 (68.5)26 (83.9)23 (74.2)
TAPSE, mm16.8±419.5±4+2.7±30.000116.2±417.6±4.7+1.4±40.0116.7±318.2±4+1.5±30.01nsnsns0.04nsns
TR, grade<0.01<0.01<0.01ns<0.01nsns<0.01<0.01
Mild, n (%)48 (50.0)59 (61.5)25 (46.3)28 (51.8)12 (38.7)12 (38.7)
 Moderate, n (%)33 (34.3)29 (30.2)18 (33.3)21 (38.9)10 (32.3)15 (48.3)
Severe, n (%)15 (15.7)8 (8.3)11 (20.3)5 (9.3)9 (29.0)4 (13.0)
Pericardial effusion, n (%)20 (20.8)9 (9.3)12 (22.2)5 (9.2)6 (19.3)5 (16.1)

Group A: patients without cardiovascular comorbidities; Group B: patients with one cardiovascular comorbidity; Group C: patients with at least two cardiovascular comorbidities. Results are expressed as mean±sd unless indicated otherwise. FU: follow-up; ns: nonsignificant; DLCO: diffusing capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide; NYHA: New York Heart Association; 6MWT: non-encouraged 6-min walk test; RAP: mean right atrial pressure; mPAP: mean pulmonary arterial pressure; WP: wedge pressure; CI: cardiac index; PVR: pulmonary vascular resistance; RV: right ventricular end-diastolic area; LV: left ventricular end-diastolic area; TAPSE: tricupid anular plane systolic excursion; TR: tricuspid regurgitation.