TABLE 3

Unadjusted and adjusted association between patients’ characteristics and the presence of dyspnoea and wheezing

VariablesDyspnoeaWheezing
Unadjusted analysisAdjusted analysisUnadjusted analysisAdjusted analysis
OR (95% CI)p-valueOR (95% CI)p-valueOR (95% CI)p-valueOR (95% CI)p-value
Sex
MaleRefRefRef
Female2.355 (2.062–2.691)<0.00013.056 2.597–3.597)<0.00011.012 (0.927–1.105)0.7928
Age years1.039 (1.033–1.045)<0.00011.029 (1.022–1.036)<0.00010.997 (0.993–1.001)0.2092
BMI kg·m−21.111 (1.098–1.124)<0.00011.093 (1.078–1.107)<0.00011.054 (1.045–1.064)<0.00011.043 (1.033–1.052)<0.0001
Smoking pack-years
0RefRefRefRef
 0–100.775 (0.632–0.951)0.01451.162 (0.919–1.470)0.21071.448 (1.263–1.661)<0.00011.627 (1.409–1.879)<0.0001
 10–200.748 (0.598–0.935)0.01071.076 (0.835–1.386)0.57041.818 (1.575–2.099)<0.00011.930 (1.659–2.245)<0.0001
 20–300.930 (0.748–1.158)0.51751.252 (0.972–1.612)0.08152.154 (1.857–2.499)<0.00012.138 (1.828–2.502)<0.0001
 >301.593 (1.362–1.864)<0.00011.529 (1.262–1.854)<0.00013.242 (2.870–3.662)<0.00012.659 (2.334–3.029)<0.0001
FEV1 %0.966 (0.963–0.970)<0.00010.973 (0.969–0.977)<0.00010.972 (0.970–0.975)<0.00010.978 (0.975–0.981)<0.0001
Charlson comorbidity index
0RefRefRef
 12.503 (2.147–2.919)<0.00011.700 (1.420–2.036)<0.00011.780 (1.578–2.009)<0.00011.372 (1.203–1.566)<0.0001
 >13.409 (2.826–4.112)<0.00012.341 (1.873–2.926)<0.00011.665 (1.417–1.957)<0.00011.211 (1.015–1.446)0.0335
Depression4.167 (3.582–4.847)<0.00011.945 (1.606–2.356)<0.00011.543 (1.349–1.765)<0.0001
Anxiety3.050 (2.685–3.464)<0.00012.302 (1.956–2.709)<0.00011.762 (1.599–1.942)<0.00011.769 (1.595–1.963)<0.0001
YPAS0.975 (0.972–0.978)<0.00010.986 (0.983–0.989)<0.00010.995 (0.993–0.997)<0.0001

The analysis was adjusted for the following variables: body mass index (BMI); forced vital capacity (FVC); forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1); Hospital Anxiety and Depression scale (HADS); Yale Physical Activity Questionnaire (YPAS). Ref: reference.