TABLE 1

Demographic and clinical characteristics of the study participants by sex and smoking

GlobalMenWomenp-valueSmokersNever-smokersp-value
Subjects n90924311478149104182
Age years60.2±11.160.1±10.860.4±11.30.155359.4±10.261.2±12.0<0.0001
BMI kg·m−227.5±5.028.1±4.427.01±5.4<0.000127.4±4.827.6±5.10.0706
Active smoker %19.821.618.1<0.000136.6
Ex-smoker %34.239.929.163.4
Never-smoker %46.038.552.8100
Pack-years26.3±22.930.0±24.821.9±19.6<0.000126.3±22.9
FVC L3.7±1.04.32±0.93.1±0.7<0.00013.8±0.93.2±1.1<0.0001
FVC %101.0±14.9100.5±14.9101.5±14.9<0.0001100.9±14.5101.2±15.40.2152
FEV1 L2.9±0.83.34±0.82.4±0.6<0.00012.9±0.82.8±0.9<0.0001
FEV1 % pred100.6±17.199.64±17.7101.5±16.5<0.000198.8±17.2102.7±16.8<0.0001
FEV1/FVC78.2±7.877.08±8.579.12±7.04<0.000176.9±8.579.7±6.7<0.0001
Charlson comorbidity index0.36±0.870.42±0.970.30±0.77<0.00010.40±0.940.30±0.78<0.0001
COTE index1.01±2.250.64±1.721.34±2.59<0.00011.06±2.290.95±2.200.0256
Possible depression %11.19.512.6<0.000111.011.20.9141
Possible anxiety %26.619.732.8<0.000126.426.80.1447
YPAS50.0±23.852.7±25.147.7±22.5<0.000150.0±23.950.1±14.00.8135

Values are mean±sd, unless otherwise specified. BMI: body mass index; FVC: forced vital capacity; FEV1: forced expiratory volume in 1 s; COTE: COPD specific comorbidity test; YPAS: Yale Physical Activity Questionnaire.