Exercise responses at iso-time during constant work rate exercise pre- and post-training

PrePostPrePostMean dif.95% CI
Perceptual ratings
 Dyspnoea, 0–10 scale7.4±2.05.1±3.0*7.4±2.17.6±2.4−2.6−5.7–0.6
 Leg effort, 0–10 scale7.1±1.76.1±2.95.2±4.15.0±3.8−0.8−3.2–1.6
Breathing pattern
VʹE, L·min−152.4±21.253.5±22.669.0±38.166.4±36.53.8−3.4–11.0
fB, breaths·min−134±1230±1133±1828±152−6–10
VT, L1.6±0.61.8±0.92.2±1.22.5±1.40−0.6–0.5
Ti/Ttot, %45±1546±1545±2547±260−6–6
 PEFR, L·s−12.6±1.02.7±1.13.4±1.93.2±1.70.2−0.3–0.7
 IC, L2.3±0.42.8±0.7**2.6±0.92.9±1.0*0.3−0.2–0.6
Respiratory mechanics
Pes, cmH2O−21±12−15±7*−21±11−20±116−2–14
Pga,av, cmH2O−14±9−9±4*−13±7−11±74−3–11
Pdi,av, cmH2O7±56±48±59±7−2−6–2
Pga,rise, cmH2O24±1716±8*21±1220±14−7−19–5
 EMGdi, % max60±2554±2467±960±52−7–11
 EMGscm, % max27±1518±921±1325±12−13*−25–−1
 EMGsca, % max47±2635±2031±1835±19−16−40–8
Respiratory muscle tissue oxygenation
 Δ StiO2,scm, %−13.5±8.5−6.1±4.2*−5.6±7.8−11.4±9.013.3*0.2±26.4
 Δ StiO2,sca, %−6.9±2.8−8.4±5.8−6.4±5.9−8.2±10.60.3−11.0±11.6
 Δ StiO2,abd, %−7.1±3.5−3.4±3.5*−5.2±1.2−3.4±3.11.2−3.4±5.8

Values represent mean±standard deviation or mean difference and the lower to upper limit of the 95% confidence interval. Δ StiO2,abd: change in tissue oxygenation index of the rectus abdominus from rest to iso-time; Δ StiO2,sca: change in tissue oxygenation index of the scalene from rest to iso-time; Δ StiO2,scm: change in tissue oxygenation index of the sternocleidomastoid from rest to iso-time; fB: breathing frequency; EMGdi: electromyography of the diaphragm; EMGsca: electromyography of the scalene; EMGscm: electromyography of the sternocleidomastoid; IC: inspiratory capacity; PEFR: peak expiratory flow rate; Pdi,av: average transdiaphragmatic pressure during inspiration; Pes,av: average oesophageal pressure during inspiration; Pga,av: average gastric pressure during inspiration; Pga,rise, average increase in gastric pressure during expiration; Ti/Ttot: ratio of inspiratory time for one breath to total time of one breath; VE: minute ventilation; VT: tidal volume. *: p<0.05; **: p<0.01.